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MS Abstracts 05b-2g5

  1. Familial risk of Multiple Sclerosis: a nationwide cohort study
    Am J Epidemiol 2005 Oct 15;162(8):774-8

  2. Low fat dietary intervention with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in Multiple Sclerosis patients
    ProstaGlandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2005 Nov;73(5):397-404

  3. AntiBodies from inflamed Central Nervous System tissue recognize Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein
    J Immunol 2005 Aug 1;175(3):1974-82

  4. Myelin/Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein is a member of a subset of the ImmunoGlobulin superfamily encoded within the Major Histocompatibility Complex
    Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993 Sep 1;90(17):7990-4

  5. Isolated U-fiber involvement in MS: preliminary observations
    Neurology 1998 May;50(5):1301-6

  6. Involvement of Neuropsin in the pathogenesis of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
    Glia 2005 Nov 1;52(2):108-18

  7. Changes in the ascertainment of Multiple Sclerosis
    Neurology 2005 Oct 11;65(7):1066-70

  8. A randomized crossover study of Bee Sting Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis
    Neurology 2005 Oct 12

  9. Magnetization Transfer Histograms in Clinically Isolated Syndromes suggestive of Multiple Sclerosis
    Brain 2005 Oct 11

  10. Bone Marrow Transplantation combined with gene therapy to induce antigen-specific tolerance and ameliorate EAE
    Mol Ther 2005 Oct 7

  11. Cytokine toxicity to Oligodendrocyte Precursors is mediated by Iron
    Glia 2005 Nov 15;52(3):199-208

  12. Evidence for progressive Gray Matter loss in patients with Relapsing/Remitting MS
    Neurology 2005 Oct 11;65(7):1126-8





#1

Familial Risk Of Multiple Sclerosis: A Nationwide Cohort Study

Nielsen NM, Westergaard T, Rostgaard K, Frisch M, Hjalgrim H, Wohlfahrt J, Koch-Henriksen N, Melbye M
Am J Epidemiol 2005 Oct 15;162(8):774-8
Statens Serum Institut, Department of Epidemiology Research, Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark
PMID# 16120694
Abstract

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is known to accumulate within families. The magnitude of the familial risk, however, remains uncertain.

Using a nationwide MS register and other national registers, the authors estimated relative and absolute risks of MS in a population-based cohort that included 19,615 first-degree relatives of 8,205 Danish MS patients followed from 1968 to 1997.

The ratio of observed to expected numbers of MS cases served as the measure of the relative risk of MS. Lifetime risks of MS in first-degree relatives were estimated as the product of the relative risk and the national lifetime risk of MS.

Overall, first-degree relatives had a sevenfold increased risk of MS (relative risk = 7.1, 95% confidence interval: 5.8, 8.8) (n = 90) compared with the background population.

By modeling the individual incidence rate of MS as the sum of a familial component and a sporadic risk component, the familial excess lifetime risk was found to be 2.5% (95% confidence interval: 2.0, 3.2) among first-degree relatives of MS patients, irrespective of the gender of the proband and the relative.

This percentage should be added to a sporadic absolute risk in the general population of 0.5% in women and 0.3% for men. Spouses of MS patients did not experience an increased risk of MS, suggesting no major role for environmental factors acting in adulthood.



#2

Low Fat Dietary Intervention With Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation In Multiple Sclerosis Patients

Weinstock-Guttman B, Baier M, Park Y, Feichter J, Lee-Kwen P, Gallagher E, Venkatraman J, Meksawan K, Deinehert S, Pendergast D, Awad AB, Ramanathan M, Munschauer F, Rudick R
ProstaGlandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2005 Nov;73(5):397-404
Baird Multiple Sclerosis Center for MS Treatment and Research, Jacobs Neurological Institute, State University of New York, 100 High Street, Buffalo General Hospital-E2, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA
PMID# 16099630
Abstract

Objectives
To determine whether a low fat diet supplemented with Omega-3 positively affects quality of life (QOL) in Relapsing/Remitting MS (RRMS) patients.

In this 1-year long double-blind, randomized trial, patients were randomized to two dietary interventions: the "Fish Oil" (FO) group received a low fat diet (15% fat) with omega-3 FOs and the "Olive Oil" (OO) group received the AHA Step I diet (fat 30%) with OO supplements.

The primary outcome measure was the Physical Components Summary Scale (PCS) of the Short Health Status Questionnaire (SF-36).

Additional measures using MS specific QOL questionnaires, Neurological status and relapse rate were obtained.

Results
31 RRMS patients were enrolled, with mean follow up over 11+/-SD 2.9 months.

Clinical benefits favoring the FO group were observed on PCS/SF-36 (P=0.050) and MHI (P=0.050) at 6 months. Reduced Fatigue was seen on the OO diet at 6 months (P=0.035).

The relapse rate decreased in both groups relative to the rates during the 1 year preceding the study: mean change in relapse rate in the FO group: -0.79+/-SD 1.12 relapses/year (P=0.021) vs. -0.69+/-SD 1.11 (P=0.044) in the OO group.

This study suggests that a low fat diet supplemented with omega-3 PUFA can have moderate benefits in RRMS patients on concurrent disease modifying therapies.



#3

AntiBodies From Inflamed Central Nervous System Tissue Recognize Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein

O'Connor KC, Appel H, Bregoli L, Call ME, Catz I, Chan JA, Moore NH, Warren KG, Wong SJ, Hafler DA, Wucherpfennig KW
J Immunol 2005 Aug 1;175(3):1974-82
Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Neurology and Center for Neurologic Disease, Boston, MA 02115, USA
PMID# 16034142
Abstract

AutoAntiBodies to Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG) can induce DeMyelination and Oligodendrocyte loss in models of Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

Whether Anti-MOG Abs play a similar role in patients with MS or inflammatory CNS diseases by Epitope Spreading is unclear.

We have therefore examined whether AutoAntibodies that bind properly folded MOG protein are present in the CNS Parenchyma of MS patients.

IgG was purified from CNS tissue of 14 postmortem cases of MS and 8 control cases, including cases of Encephalitis. Binding was assessed using two independent assays, a fluorescence-based solid-phase assay and a solution-phase RIA.

MOG AutoAntiBodies were identified in IgG purified from CNS tissue by solid-phase immunoassay in 7 of 14 cases with MS and 1 case of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis, but not in IgG from noninflamed control tissue.

This finding was confirmed with a solution-phase RIA, which measures higher affinity AutoAntiBodies.

These data demonstrate that AutoAntiBodies recognizing MOG are present in substantially higher concentrations in the CNS Parenchyma compared with CerebroSpinal Fluid and Serum in subjects with MS.

Indicating that local production/accumulation is an important aspect of AutoAntiBody-mediated pathology in DeMyelinating CNS Diseases. Moreover, chronic inflammatory CNS disease may induce AutoAntiBodies by virtue of Epitope spreading.



#4

Myelin/Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Is A Member Of A Subset Of The ImmunoGlobulin Superfamily Encoded Within The Major Histocompatibility Complex

Pham-Dinh D, Mattei MG, Nussbaum JL, Roussel G, Pontarotti P, Roeckel N, Mather IH, Artzt K, Lindahl KF, Dautigny A
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993 Sep 1;90(17):7990-4
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unite 1488, Universite de Paris VI, France
PMID# 8367453
Abstract

Myelin/Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG) is found on the surface of Myelinating Oligodendrocytes and external lamellae of Myelin Sheaths in the Central Nervous System, and it is a target Antigen in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and Multiple Sclerosis.

We have isolated bovine, mouse, and rat MOG cDNA clones and shown that the developmental pattern of MOG expression in the rat Central Nervous System coincides with the late stages of Myelination.

The amino-terminal, extracellular domain of MOG has characteristics of an ImmunoGlobulin variable domain and is 46% and 41% identical with the amino terminus of bovine butyrophilin (expressed in the lactating mammary gland).

And B-G Antigens of the chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), respectively; these proteins thus form a subset of the ImmunoGlobulin superfamily.

The homology between MOG and B-G extends beyond their structure and genetic mapping to their ability to induce strong antibody responses and has implications for the role of MOG in pathological, AutoImmune conditions.

We colocalized the MOG and BT genes to the human MHC on chromosome 6p21.3-p22. The mouse MOG gene was mapped to the homologous band C of chromosome 17, within the M region of the mouse MHC.



#5

Isolated U-Fiber Involvement In MS: Preliminary Observations

Miki Y, Grossman RI, Udupa JK, Wei L, Kolson DL, Mannon LJ, Grossman M
Neurology 1998 May;50(5):1301-6
Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia 19104-4283, USA
PMID# 9595978
Abstract

We studied the frequency and location of isolated U-fiber involvement in MS and correlated these findings exploratively with physical disability and NeuroPsychological Impairment. Fifty-three MS patients were examined.

Three-millimeter-thick, fast Spin-Echo T2-weighted MR images and Spin-Echo PostgGadolinium 1-weighted images were obtained.

Computer software that which had been validated previously for quantitation of MS lesions was used to detect lesions on the T2-weighted images.

The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Ambulation Index (AI), and a battery of NeuroCognitive Tests were performed on each patient. Forty-two arcuate HyperIntensities along the U-fiber were detected by the software in 28 patients (53%).

Twenty-seven lesions (64.3%) were seen in the Frontal Lobe, eight (19.0%) in the Temporal Lobe, three (7.1%) in the Parietal Lobe, three (7.1%) in the Occipital Lobe, and one (2.4%) in both Frontal and Parietal Lobes. Four lesions (9.5%) showed Gadolinium enhancement.

Seventeen lesions (40%) were HypoIntense on the T1-weighted images.

Scores of three of the 11 NeuroPsychological Tests reflecting performance in Executive control and Memory were significantly different at least at the p = 0.05 level between the eight patients with multiple, isolated U-fiber lesions and the 45 patients without any or with only a single U-fiber lesion.

No significant difference was noted for EDSS or AI. Isolated U-fiber involvement is an underappreciated MR finding in MS.

Our preliminary hypothesis is that U-fiber lesions may contribute to NeuroPsychological Impairment, although our observation requires confirmation.



#6

Involvement Of Neuropsin In The Pathogenesis Of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

Terayama R, Bando Y, Yamada M, Yoshida S
Glia 2005 Nov 1;52(2):108-18
Asahikawa Medical College, Department of Anatomy, Asahikawa, Japan
PMID# 15920728
Abstract

Inflammation, DeMyelination, and Axonal damage of the Central Nervous System (CNS) are major pathological features of Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

ProteoLytic digestion of the Blood-Brain Barrier and Myelin protein by Serine Proteases is known to contribute to the development and progression of MS.

Neuropsin, a Serine protease, has a role in Neuronal plasticity, and its expression has been shown to be upregulated in response to injury to the CNS.

To determine the possible involvement of Neuropsin in DeMyelinating Diseases of the CNS, we examined its expression in Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG)-induced Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE), a recognized animal model for MS.

Neuropsin mRNA expression was induced in the Spinal Cord White Matter of mice with EAE.

Combined in situ hybridization and ImmunoHistoChemistry demonstrated that most of the cells expressing Neuropsin mRNA showed ImmunoReactivity for CNPase, a cell-specific marker for Oligodendrocytes.

Mice lacking Neuropsin (Neuropsin(-/-)) exhibited an altered EAE progression characterized by delayed onset and progression of clinical symptoms as compared to wild-type mice.

Neuropsin(-/-) mice also showed attenuated DeMyelination and delayed Oligodendroglial death early during the course of EAE.

These observations suggest that Neuropsin is involved in the pathogenesis of EAE mediated by DeMyelination and Oligodendroglial death.

(c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.



#7

Changes In The Ascertainment Of Multiple Sclerosis

Marrie RA, Cutter G, Tyry T, Hadjimichael O, Campagnolo D, Vollmer T
Neurology 2005 Oct 11;65(7):1066-70
Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Neurology, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
PMID# 16217060
Abstract

Objective
With diagnostic criteria alterations, increased MRI availability, and awareness of therapies, temporal changes in incidence and prevalence rates may occur, with an increase in the proportion of mildly affected persons diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

The authors assessed temporal trends in the delay from symptom onset to diagnosis (DONDX), and determined whether the degree of disability at diagnosis differs by year of symptom onset (YONSET), using the NARCOMS Registry.

Methods
The authors selected US participants with an age at symptom onset of 10 to 60 years, and YONSET > or = 1980 (n = 16,581).

The authors divided YONSET into 5-year groups and compared DONDX between groups using multivariate Cox regression.

The authors classified participants enrolled within 2 years of diagnosis (n = 5,548) as having mild, moderate, or severe disability using Patient Determined Disease Steps, and assessed the association of disability with YONSET using polytomous logistic regression.

Results
DONDX decreased with later YONSET (r = -0.43, p < 0.0001). This association remained after adjustment for demographic factors in a multivariate Cox model.

Later YONSET was associated with increased odds of having mild disability at diagnosis as compared to severe disability (OR = 1.10 per year; 1.09 to 1.11).

Conclusion
The delay from symptom onset to diagnosis is steadily decreasing in MS. An increasing proportion of patients with MS have mild disability at diagnosis after accounting for confounders.

As the effectiveness of therapies is influenced by disease duration, this has implications for comparison of treatment effects in modern clinical trials to earlier study results.



#8

A Randomized Crossover Study Of Bee Sting Therapy For Multiple Sclerosis

Wesselius T, Heersema DJ, Mostert JP, Heerings M, Admiraal-Behloul F, Talebian A, van Buchem MA, De Keyser J
Neurology 2005 Oct 12
University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Neurology, Groningen; Leiden University Medical Center, Gemini Hospital, Department of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Leiden, The Netherlands
PMID# 16221950
Abstract

Background
Bee Sting Therapy is increasingly used to treat patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) in the belief that it can stabilize or ameliorate the disease. However, there are no clinical studies to justify its use.

Methods
In a randomized, crossover study, we assigned 26 patients with Relapsing/Remitting or Relapsing Secondary/Progressive MS to 24 weeks of medically supervised Bee Sting Therapy or 24 weeks of no treatment.

Live bees (up to a maximum of 20) were used to administer Bee Venom three times per week. The primary outcome was the cumulative number of new Gadolinium-enhancing lesions on T1-weighted MRI of the Brain.

Secondary outcomes were lesion load on T2-weighted MRI, relapse rate, disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale, Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite, Guy's Neurologic Disability Scale), Fatigue (Abbreviated Fatigue Questionnaire, Fatigue Impact Scale), and health-related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form General Health Survey).

Results
During Bee Sting Therapy, there was no significant reduction in the cumulative number of new Gadolinium-enhancing lesions.

The T2-weighted lesion load further progressed, and there was no significant reduction in relapse rate.

There was no improvement of disability, Fatigue, and quality of life. Bee Sting Therapy was well tolerated, and there were no serious adverse events.

Conclusions
In this trial, treatment with Bee Venom in patients with Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis did not reduce disease activity, disability, or Fatigue and did not improve quality of life.



#9

Magnetization Transfer Histograms In Clinically Isolated Syndromes Suggestive Of Multiple Sclerosis

Fernando KT, Tozer DJ, Miszkiel KA, Gordon RM, Swanton JK, Dalton CM, Barker GJ, Plant GT, Thompson AJ, Miller DH
Brain 2005 Oct 11
Institute of Neurology, NMR Research Unit, London, UK; Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK
PMID# 16219673
Abstract

In established Multiple Sclerosis, Magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR) Histograms reveal abnormalities of Normal-Appearing White Matter (NAWM) and Gray Matter (NAGM).

The aim of this study was to investigate for such abnormalities in a large cohort of patients presenting with Clinically Isolated Syndromes suggestive of Multiple Sclerosis.

Magnetization Transfer Imaging was performed on 100 patients (67 women, 33 men, median age 32 years) a mean of 19 weeks (SD 3.8, range 12-33 weeks) after symptom onset with a Clinically Isolated Syndrome.

And, in 50 healthy controls (34 women, 16 men, median age 32.5 years). SPM99 software was used to generate segmented NAWM and NAGM MTR maps.

The volumes of T2 lesions, White Matter and Gray Matter were calculated. Eighty-one patients were followed up clinically and with conventional MRI after 3 years (n = 61) or until they developed Multiple Sclerosis if this occurred sooner (n = 20).

Multiple regression analysis was used to investigate differences between patients and controls with age, gender and volume measures as covariates to control for potential confounding effects.

The MTR Histograms for both NAWM and NAGM showed a reduction in the mean (NAWM, 38.14 versus 38.33, P = 0.001; NAGM 32.29 versus 32.50, P = 0.009; units in pu) and peak location, with a left shift in the histogram.

Mean NAWM and NAGM MTR were also reduced in the patients who developed Clinically Definite Multiple Sclerosis and Multiple Sclerosis according to the McDonald Criteria but not in the 24 patients with normal T2-weighted Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

MTR abnormalities occur in the NAWM and NAGM at the earliest clinical stages of Multiple Sclerosis



#10

Bone Marrow Transplantation Combined With Gene Therapy To Induce Antigen-Specific Tolerance And Ameliorate EAE

Xu B, Haviernik P, Wolfraim LA, Bunting KD, Scott DW
Mol Ther 2005 Oct 7
University of Maryland, Department of Surgery and Department of MicroBiology and Immunology, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
PMID# 16219491
Abstract

Hematopoietic Stem Cell (HSC) transplantation is a potential therapy that can offer Multiple Sclerosis patients a radical, potentially curative treatment.

Using Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model, we previously reported that retrovirally transduced B-Cells expressing Myelin Basic Protein (MBP), MBP Ac1-11, or Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein p35-55 induced tolerance and reduced symptoms.

Here, we extend our tolerance approach using Bone Marrow (BM) cells expressing full-length PhosphoLipid Protein (PLP) in a model for Relapsing/Remitting EAE.

Using GFP expression as a marker, we found that up to 50% of cells were positive for transgene expression in peripheral blood after 900 rad irradiation and transduced BM transplantation, and expression was stable in hematopoietic lineages for over 10 weeks.

Upon challenge, T-Cell proliferation in response to PLP p139-151 was reduced and EAE was completely abolished in a pretreatment protocol. In addition, protection from EAE could be achieved with PLP-transduced BM cells given on day 12 after immunization, a potential therapeutic protocol.

Finally, the protective effect of PLP-expressing BM could also be observed using a NonMyeloAblative protocol, albeit with lower efficacy. Our results suggest that HSC may be useful to achieve long-lasting tolerance to protect mice from EAE and possibly to promote CNS repair in ongoing EAE.



#11

Cytokine Toxicity To Oligodendrocyte Precursors Is Mediated By Iron

Zhang X, Haaf M, Todorich B, Grosstephan E, Schieremberg H, Surguladze N, Connor JR
Glia 2005 Nov 15;52(3):199-208
Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine Hershey, Department of NeuroSurgery, Pennsylvania
PMID# 15968631
Abstract

Inflammatory processes play a key role in the pathogenesis of a number of common NeuroDegenerative Disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Parkinson's Disease (PD), and Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

Abnormal Iron accumulation is frequently noted in these diseases and compelling evidence exists that Iron is involved in inflammatory reactions.

HistoChemical stains for Iron repeatedly demonstrate that Oligodendrocytes, under normal conditions, stain more prominently than any other cell type in the Brain.

Therefore, we examined the hypothesis that Cytokine toxicity to Oligodendrocytes is Iron mediated.

Oligodendrocytes in culture were exposed to Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), InterLeukin-1beta (IL-1ß), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha).

Toxicity was observed in a dose-dependent manner for IFN-γ and TNF-alpha.

IL-1ß was not toxic in the concentrations used in this study. The toxic concentration of IFN-γ, and TNF-alpha was lower if the cells were Iron loaded, but Iron loading had no effect on the toxicity of IL-1ß.

These data provide insight into the controversy regarding the toxicity of Cytokines to Oligodendrocytes by revealing that Iron status of these cells will significantly impact the outcome of Cytokine treatment.

The exposure of Oligodendrocytes to Cytokines plus Iron decreased Mitochondrial membrane potential but activation of Caspase 3 is limited.

The antioxidant, TPPB, which targets Mitochondria, protected the Oligodendrocytes from the Iron-mediated CytoToxicity, providing further support that Mitochondrial dysfunction may underlie the Iron-mediated Cytokine toxicity.

Therapeutic strategies involving AntiInflammatory agents have met with limited success in the treatment of DeMyelinating Disorders.

A better understanding of these agents and the contribution of cellular Iron status to Cytokine toxicity may help develop a more consistent intervention strategy.

(c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.



#12

Evidence For Progressive Gray Matter Loss In Patients With Relapsing/Remitting MS

Valsasina P, Benedetti B, Rovaris M, Sormani MP, Comi G, Filippi M
Neurology 2005 Oct 11;65(7):1126-8
Scientific Institute and University H San Raffaele, NeuroImaging Research Unit, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy
PMID# 16217074
Abstract

Little is known about the temporal evolution of Gray Matter damage occurring early in the course of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The authors investigated the evolution of Gray Matter volume loss in 117 patients with Relapsing/Remitting MS, scanned monthly for a 9-month period.

Time-trend analysis revealed a decrease of Gray Matter volumes over the study period (p < 0.001). This study shows that Gray Matter damage in Relapsing/Remitting MS evolves markedly over a short period of observation.




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