Biological Markers To Confirm Diagnosis And Monitor The Therapy In Multiple Sclerosis
Michalowska-Wender G, Losy J, Wender M
Folia NeuroPathol 2001;39(1):1-5
Polish Academy of Sciences, Medical Univ Medical Research Centre, Dept of NeuroImmunology, Poznan
PMID# 11678345; UI# 21533304
In patients suspected of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), even in the case of MRI positive changes, CerebroSpinal Fluid (CSF) analysis is of great practical value.
Until now, however, only IgG index, restricted OligoClonal IgG Bands and the examination of IgG subclasses have been of practical value.
The determination of other Immunological markers is too expensive to be introduced into laboratory diagnostic standards in MS.
However, the clinical trials should be monitored by a large set of markers of MS activity, including the estimation of anti MBP AntiBodies, presence of MBP material in the CSF and concentration of sVCAM-1, ICAM-1, PECAM-1 in CSF and Serum.
Correlations Between In Vitro Effects Of Preparations Of Interferon And Its Inducers on Blood Cells In Multiple Sclerosis
Cheknev SB, Mezentseva MV, Narovlyansky AN, Kobyakina NA, Ershov FI
Bull Exp Biol Med 2001 Apr;131(4):382-4
Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, N. F. Gamaleya Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Depts of Interferons, Moscow
PMID# 11550032; UI# 21433590
We studied in vitro production of Interferon- and Interferon- by peripheral blood Leukocytes from 15 patients with Multiple Sclerosis.
The priming effects of Interferon preparations weakly correlated with Interferon- production by Leukocytes from patients with Multiple Sclerosis, but negatively correlated with Interferon- production.
The effects of Interferon inducers in most cases positively correlated with its spontaneous production.
We found a weak positive correlation between the priming effect of natural Interferon- and the effect of recombinant Interferons.
There were positive or strong positive correlations between the effects of recombinant Interferons on Leukocytes from patients with Multiple Sclerosis.
The relationship between the effects of medicinal Interferon inducers and Interferon preparation varied from negative to strong positive correlations.
These data suggest that correlation analysis can be used for dynamic control and elaboration of methods for combined ImmunoTherapy of Multiple Sclerosis with various Interferon preparations or Interferon and its inducers.
ImmunoPathology Of Secondary/Progressive Multiple Sclerosis
Prineas JW, Kwon EE, Cho ES, Sharer LR, Barnett MH, Oleszak EL, Hoffman B, Morgan BP
Ann Neurol 2001 Nov;50(5):646-57
Univ of Sydney, Dept of Medicine, NSW, Australia
PMID# 11706971; UI# 21563351
Twenty-three plaques obtained at early autopsy from 2 patients with Secondary/Progressive Multiple Sclerosis were examined ImmunoHistoChemically for Microglia/Macrophages, and for ImmunoGlobulins and components of activated Complement.
Most of the lesions examined in both cases exhibited evidence of low-grade active DeMyelination of an unusual type (frustrated Phagocytosis) in Periplaque White Matter.
This included linear groups of Microglia engaging short segments of disrupted Myelin that were associated with deposits of C3d, an Opsonin formed during Complement activation.
Similar Microglia/C3d/Myelin profiles were not observed in newly forming lesions in cases of acute Multiple Sclerosis or Other Central White Matter Diseases.
As C3d coupling is known to increase the Immunogenicity of potential Antigens enormously, present findings point to disrupted Myelin close to plaques as a possible source of the putative Multiple Sclerosis Antigen.
Ongoing Myelin destruction found in a high proportion of old, established plaques was surprising.
It suggests that slowly expanding lesions (progressive plaques), in which ongoing Myelin breakdown occurs in the absence of florid PeriVascular Cell cuffing.
Or other Histological signs of acute inflammation, contribute to disease progression in cases of Secondary/Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.
Diagnostic Value Of Prolonged Latencies In The Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential
Murofushi T, Shimizu K, Takegoshi H, Cheng PW
Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001 Sep;127(9):1069-1072
Univ of Tokyo, Faculty of Medicine, Dept of Otolaryngology, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan
As a parameter for the evaluation of the Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (VEMP), amplitude has been used clinically. However, the significance of latency has not been considered.
Objective & Design & Setting We reviewed records of the VEMP of patients with various diseases and compared them with records of healthy volunteers.
To clarify the diagnostic value of latencies of the VEMP.
Data were collected from patients in an outpatient clinic of a tertiary care center and healthy volunteers.
Subjects & Intervention
Diagnostic Clinical records of 134 patients (61 men and 73 women, aged 20-75 years) were reviewed.
Diagnoses were Meniere Disease in 43 patients, Acoustic Neuroma in 62 patients, Vestibular Neuritis in 23 patients, and Multiple Sclerosis in 6 patients.
Also, 18 healthy volunteers (13 men and 5 women, aged 25-38 years) were enrolled.
Main Outcome Measures
Click-evoked myogenic potentials were recorded with surface electrodes over each SternocleidoMastoid muscle. Latencies and amplitudes of responses were measured.
Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials were absent or decreased in 51% of patients with Meniere Disease (n = 22), 39% with Vestibular Neuritis (n = 9), 77% with Acoustic Neuroma (n = 48), and 25% with Multiple Sclerosis (3 of 12 sides of 6 patients).
Concerning latency, patients with Meniere Disease or Vestibular Neuritis hardly showed any latency prolongation. Four patients with Acoustic Neuroma showed prolonged p13; all had large tumors.
All patients with Multiple Sclerosis showed prolonged p13.
Prolonged latencies of the VEMP suggest lesions in the RetroLabyrinthine, especially in the VestibuloSpinal Tract.