Murine Macrophages Stimulated With Central And Peripheral Nervous System Myelin Or Purified Myelin Proteins Release Inflammatory Products
Constantinescu CS, Goodman DB, Hilliard B, Wysocka M, Cohen JA
NeuroSci Lett 2000 Jun 30;287(3):171-174
Univ of Leicester, Dept of MicroBiology and Immunology, Maurice Shock Medical Sciences Building, UnivRoad, LE1 9HN, Leicester, UK
Macrophage inflammatory products including Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) and InterLeukin-12/p40 are implicated in DeMyelinating Diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Guillain-Barre Syndrome, and animal models Experimental AutoImmune EncephaloMyelitis and Neuritis.
The Macrophage product Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) is released during Inflammation. ACE can also be elevated in MS.
We investigated the ability of central (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Myelin to stimulate TNF, InterLeukin-12, and ACE production by murine Macrophages.
Both CNS and PNS Myelin and purified Myelin Basic Protein and P2 protein induced release of these products.
Direct stimulation by Myelin may represent a mechanism of inducing release of Macrophage products in inflammatory DeMyelination or Neural injury.
Mood Disorders In Multiple Sclerosis: Diagnosis And Treatment
J NeuroVirol 2000 May;6 Suppl 2:S160-7
Brigham and Women's Hospital, Division of Psychiatry, 75 Francis Street, Boston, Massachusetts, MA 02115, USA
PMID# 10871806; UI# 20332483
Emotional disturbances are common in MS and consist of disturbances of Mood and disturbances of Affect.
The important Mood Disorders are Major Depressive Disorder, Dysthymic Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, Panic Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
Their relationship to MS is multi-factorial and complex, and the extent to which they are direct consequences of the disease process or psychological reactions to it remains unclear.
Whatever their cause, however, the symptoms of Mood Disorders in people with MS are no different from the symptoms of Mood Disorders in people without MS, and respond just as well to standard treatments.
The disorders of affect are Euphoria, Pathological Laughing and Weeping, and other Frontal Lobe Syndromes.
These disorders result from DeMyelination, are some of the most characteristic symptoms of MS, and have the same implications for treatment as do other aspects of the disease.
Mood and Affective Disturbances can cause enormous pain and suffering and lead to significant disruption of family, work, and social life.
Physicians who can identify, diagnose, treat, and manage Mood and Affective Disturbances effectively and who can help their patients and family members acknowledge these difficulties, talk about them, and accept Psychiatric consultation and treatment can have a dramatic impact on the quality of their lives.
This paper outlines the symptoms and diagnostic criteria for Mood Disorders and Affective Disturbances, reviews current treatment options, summarizes data from Epidemiologic and PathoPhysiological Studies, and suggests areas for future research.
Grading BrainStem Involvement In Multiple Sclerosis - By Means Of Electro-Oculography
Alpini D, Caputo D, Hahan A, Pugnetti L, Monti B, Razzari S, Cesarani A
J NeuroVirol 2000 May;6 Suppl 2:S156-9
Scientific Institute S. Maria Nascente, don Gnocchi Foundation, via Capecelatro 66, Milan, Italy
PMID# 10871805; UI# 20332482
One of the most frequent disorders of the BrainStem in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is InterNuclear Opthalmoplegia (INO).
The aim of this study is to show how it is possible to monitor the course of MS grading INO on the basis of Electro-Oculographic findings.
We selected 130 patients with a diagnosis of Clinically Defined Multiple Sclerosis (78 males and 52 females, mean age 43.5 years) from a population of 354 MS patients.
Both Saccadic Eye movements and spontaneous, Vestibular (VOR), Visuo-Vestibular (VVOR) and Optokinetich Nystagmus (OKN) were assessed.
Slowing of the adducting Eye was considered as a sign of lesion of the InterOcular Pathways.
Statistical analyzes showed that the most sensitive test was VVOR, the least sensitive being randomized Saccades. An impairment of random Saccades was always associated with abnormal results on all other tests.
It seems thus possible to grade the involvement of the Medial Longitudinal Fasciculi (MLF) in MS from an abnormality limited to the VVOR test up to an impairment of randomized Saccadic movements.
Grading BrainStem involvement in MS is particularly important in therapeutic trials and during rehabilitation.
Clinico-ImmunoGenetic Characteristics Of Multiple Sclerosis With Optic Neuritis In Children
Boiko AN, Guseva ME, Guseva MR, Boiko SY, Sudomoina MA, Bikova OV, Maslova OI, Favorova OO, Gusev EI
J NeuroVirol 2000 May;6 Suppl 2:S152-5
Dept ofNeurology and NeuroSurgery of the Russian State Medical University, Ostrovitianova 1, Moscow, Russia
PMID# 10871804; UI# 20332481
The frequency of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) with clinical onset before 16 years of age in different regions of Russia fluctuates from 2 to 10% of all MS patients. One of the most frequent signs of MS manifestation and/or exacerbation at this age is Optic Neuritis (ON).
Forty-seven children with MS were observed in Moscow. Diagnosis of MS in every case was clinically definite and proved by serial MRI.
Clinico-tomographic dissociation was noticed: numerous large lesions, typical for MS on T2 images were often seen in children with mild or moderate residual Neurological symptoms.
All patients had Relapsing/Remitting MS course, mean EDSS was 2.24+/-0.26. Thirty-eight children (80%) had ON at least once, ten (21.3%) - twice or more times.
In several cases ON had subclinical course or might be missed and the damage of the Optic Nerve with partial Atrophy was found only after complex Ophthalmological investigation including Visual Evoked Potentials.
Thus, the clinical course of MS and ON have some peculiarities in children and may be Genetically based. Analyzes of allelic polymorphisms of HLA-DR and TNF loci on Chromosome 6 was performed.
Data from children with MS were compared with data from their parents, healthy controls and other MS patients from the same ethnic group.
Children with MS had increased frequency of DR2(15) and TNF-a11, but not TNF-a9 as adult MS patients from the same ethnic group. The presence of TNF-a7, rare in adult patients, could be proposed as a marker of early MS onset.