NeuroPsychological Assessment In Multiple Sclerosis: A Follow-Up Study With MRI
Mariani C, Farina E, Cappa SF, Anzola GP, Faglia L, Bevilacqua L, Capra R, Mattioli F, Vignolo LA
J Neurol 1991 Oct;238(7):395-400
Istituto di Clinica Neurologica, Univ of Milan, Italy
PMID# 1960544; UI# 92071737
Nineteen moderately impaired patients with clinically definite Multiple Sclerosis and an initially Relapsing/Remitting course were included in a NeuroPsychological and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) follow-up study.
The average test/re-test interval was about 2 years. The NeuroPsychological findings were indicative of a very mild overall impairment; the patients, as a group, showed no evidence of Cognitive deterioration in the follow-up period.
A numerical estimation of the severity of Cerebral DeMyelination shown by MRI did not indicate a significant change. No correlation between Cognitive performance variations and MRI changes was found.
Serial NeuroPsychological Assessment And Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis In Multiple Sclerosis
Hohol MJ, Guttmann CR, Orav J, Mackin GA, Kikinis R, Khoury SJ, Jolesz FA, Weiner HL
Arch Neurol 1997 Aug;54(8):1018-25
Brigham and Women's Hospital, Center for Neurologic Diseases, Boston, MA 02115, USA
PMID# 9267977; UI# 97411864
To assess the correlation between Cognitive Dysfunction and disease burden in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) during a 1-year period.
The Brief, Repeatable Battery of NeuroPsychological Tests in Multiple Sclerosis was performed at entrance and 1 year.
Patients underwent at least 20 Proton Density (range, 20-24) and T2-weighted axial Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Brain scans except for stable patients who were scanned monthly.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging was evaluated using computer-automated, 3-dimensional volumetric analysis.
Setting & Participants
A research clinic of a university hospital. Forty-four patients with MS of the following disease categories:
- Relapsing/Remitting (14)
- Relapsing/Remitting/Progressive (12)
- Chronic/Progressive (13)
- Stable (5)
Main Outcome Measures
The relationships between scores on the Brief, Repeatable Battery of NeuroPsychological Tests in Multiple Sclerosis and 2 MRI measures (total lesion volume and Brain to IntraCranial cavity volume ratio) were assessed using linear regression.
These MRI measures were also compared with Cognitive status at 1 year using analysis of variance.
Overall, there was no decline in mean Cognitive test performance during 1 year.
Significant correlations were found between baseline NeuroPsychological test scores of NonVerbal Memory, Information-Processing Speed, and Attention and both MRI measures.
Patients with Chronic/Progressive MS demonstrated the strongest correlations. At 1 year, change in information-processing speed and attention correlated with change in total lesion volume.
The mean increase in total lesion volume was 5.7 mL for 4 patients whose Cognitive status worsened compared with 0.4 mL for 19 patients who improved and 0.5 mL for 21 patients who remained stable.
During a 1-year period mean Cognitive performance did not worsen.
Automated volumetric MRI measures of total lesion volume and Brain to IntraCranial cavity volume ratio correlated with NeuroPsychological performance.
Especially in patients with Chronic/Progressive MS. Worsening MRI lesion burden correlated with Cognitive decline.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Cognitive Functioning In Multiple Sclerosis
Medaer R, Nelissen E, Appel B, Swerts M, Geutjens J, Callaert H
J Neurol 1987 Dec;235(2):86-9
Multiple Sclerosis and Rehabilitation Clinic, Overpelt, Belgium
PMID# 3430196; UI# 88117612
The relationship between Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis and Brain lesions seen on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was studied.
Three groups of 11 patients with Multiple Sclerosis, matched for the variables of disability, duration of illness, age and sex, were included.
On the basis of NeuroPsychological testing, the groups were seen to differ in their level of Cognitive Impairment.
The first group showed no Cognitive Impairment, the second group a moderate, and the third group a serious Cognitive Impairment.
These differences between the groups were reflected by MRI, which revealed more abnormalities in the groups with Cognitive Impairment compared with the group with normal Cognitive function.
However, by MRI it was not possible to distinguish between the groups with moderate and that with serious Cognitive Impairment.
Brain MRI Correlates Of Cognitive Impairment In Primary and S/P Multiple Sclerosis
Comi G, Filippi M, Martinelli V, Campi A, Rodegher M, Alberoni M, Sirabian G, Canal N
J Neurol Sci 1995 Oct;132(2):222-7
Univ of Milan, Scientific Institute, Ospedale Dept of Neurology, San Raffaele, Italy
PMID# 8543952; UI# 96098615
Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and an extensive battery of NeuroPsychological tests exploring Frontal functions, Short and Long-Term Memory, Visuo-Spatial skills, Attention and Language were applied to 14 patients with Primary/Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (PPMS) and 17 patients with Secondary/Progressive MS (SPMS).
Patients with PPMS and SPMS did not differ in degree of physical disability, but Cognitive deficits were found in 9/17 (53%) patients with SPMS and in only 1/14 (7%) of those with PPMS (p = 0.01).
Patients with SPMS had higher total (p = 0.004), PeriVentricular (p = 0.008) and Non-PeriVentricular (p = 0.04) MRI lesion loads than patients with PPMS.
In detail, patients with SPMS had greater involvement of Frontal (p = 0.05) and Occipital (p = 0.02) Horns, Trigones (p = 0.04), Third Ventricle (p = 0.03), Basal Ganglia (p = 0.02), Parietal (p = 0.02), Temporal (p = 0.004) and Occipital (p = 0.03) Lobes.
Patients with SPMS and NeuroPsychological deficits had higher Non-PeriVentricular lesion loads than patients with SPMS who did not have such deficits (p = 0.005).
Our results indicate that both NeuroPsychological and Brain MRI abnormalities are more extensive in patients with SPMS.
Since physical disability was similar for both groups, disability in PPMS may be predominantly due to Spinal Cord involvement.
Memory And Learning Disturbances In MS
MRI Lesions And NeuroPsychological Correlation
Izquierdo G, Campoy F Jr, Mir J, Gonzalez M, Martinez-Parra C
Eur J Radiol 1991 Nov-Dec;13(3):220-4
Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Dept of Neurology, Sevilla, Spain
PMID# 1756751; UI# 92097572
Thirty-five patients with definite Multiple Sclerosis (MS) were studied. They underwent NeuroPsychological testing and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
The MRI findings at different Brain areas levels were compared with the NeuroPsychological findings.
A quantitative system was used to measure MRI-MS lesions. In this series, a positive correlation was established between Memory and Learning disturbances measured by Battery 144, and the lesions measured by MRI (total, Hemispheric and, particularly, PeriVentricular lesions).
MRI can detect MS lesions, and this study shows that a correlation between MRI and NeuroPsychological findings is possible if quantitative methods are used to distinguish different MS involvement areas in relation to NeuroPsychological tasks.
These findings suggest that Hemispheric lesions in MS produce Cognitive disturbances and MRI could be a useful tool in predicting memory and learning impairment.
NeuroPsychological Assessment In MS: Clinical, NeuroPhysiological And NeuroRadiological Relationships
Maurelli M, Marchioni E, Cerretano R, Bosone D, Bergamaschi R, Citterio A, Martelli A, Sibilla L, Savoldi F
Acta Neurol Scand 1992 Aug;86(2):124-8
Neurological Institute C. Mondino, Univ of Pavia, Italy
PMID# 1414220; UI# 93034107
We assessed Cognitive performance and its relationship with clinical and anatomic disease severity in MS with mild to moderate handicap.
34 definite MS and 18 healthy subjects matched for age and education were submitted to a NeuroPsychological test battery.
Both groups were examined for Anxiety. MS patients underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging examination.
MS performed worse than controls on all WAIS-P subtests and had Learning, Short- And Long-Term Verbal Memory Impairment.
Cognitive deficits were NOT related to abnormal Emotional States, but were found to be associated with Attentional Process and Information-Processing Speed Impairment.
Cognitive Impairment did not correlate with severity of physical disability.
The most Severe Memory Deficits were found in patients with extensive PeriVentricular damage.