DeMyelination Determinants Map To The Spike GlycoProtein Gene Of CoronaVirus Mouse Hepatitis Virus
Das Sarma J, Fu L, Tsai JC, Weiss SR, Lavi E
J Virol 2000 Oct 1;74(19):9206-9213
Division of NeuroPathology, Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
DeMyelination is the pathologic hallmark of the human Immune-mediated Neurologic Disease Multiple Sclerosis, which may be triggered or exacerbated by Viral infections.
Several experimental animal models have been developed to study the mechanism of Virus-induced DeMyelination, including CoronaVirus Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV) infection in mice.
The envelope spike (S) GlycoProtein of MHV contains determinants of properties essential for Virus-host interactions.
However, the molecular determinants of MHV-induced DeMyelination are still unknown.
To investigate the mechanism of MHV-induced DeMyelination, we examined whether the S Gene of MHV contains determinants of DeMyelination and whether DeMyelination is linked to Viral persistence.
Using targeted RNA recombination, we replaced the S Gene of a DeMyelinating Virus (MHV-A59) with the S Gene of a closely related, nonDeMyelinating Virus (MHV-2).
Recombinant Viruses containing an S Gene derived from MHV-2 in an MHV-A59 background (Penn98-1 and Penn98-2) exhibited a persistence-positive, DeMyelination-negative phenotype.
Thus, determinants of DeMyelination map to the S Gene of MHV.
Furthermore, Viral persistence is insufficient to induce DeMyelination, although it may be a prerequisite for the development of DeMyelination.
Activation Of Glial Cells By Human CoronaVirus OC43 Infection
Edwards JA, Denis F, Talbot PJ
J NeuroImmunol 2000 Aug 1;108(1-2):73-81
Human Health Research Center, Laboratory of NeuroImmunoVirology, and Universite du Quebec, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531 Boulevard des Prairies, Quebec, H7V 1B7, Laval, Canada
PMID# 10900340; UI# 20361880
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an Immune-mediated DeMyelinating Disease that could be triggered by a Viral infection.
CoronaViruses induce an MS-like disease in rodents, are NeuroInvasive in humans and can infect primary cultures of human Astrocytes and Microglia.
Infection of the human Astrocytic cell line U-373MG by the OC43 strain of human CoronaVirus caused an upregulation of IL-6, TNF-, and MCP-1 mRNA expression.
This Virus also modulated the activity of Matrix MetalloProteinases-2 and -MMP-9 and augmented Nitric Oxide production in both U-373MG cells and the human Microglial cell line CHME-5.
Thus, a CoronaViral infection of Glial Cells could lead to the production of inflammatory molecules that have been associated with Central Nervous System pathologies such as MS.
Molecular Mimicry: CoronaVirus
Talbot PJ; Paquette JS; Ciurli C; Antel JP; Ouellet F
Ann Neurol 39: 233-40 (1996)
Universite du Quebec, Laboratory of NeuroImmunoVirology, Virology Research Center, Institute Armand-Frappier, Laval, Canada
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an Inflammatory DeMyelinating Neurological Disease in which Autoreactive T-Lymphocytes sensitized to Myelin components of the Central Nervous System are postulated to contribute to PathoGenesis.
The possible relevance of molecular mimicry between a Human CoronaVirus and the Myelin Basic Protein component of Myelin in the generation of this AutoImmune reaction was evaluated.
Myelin Basic Protein- and virus-reactive T-Cell lines were established from 16 MS patients and 14 healthy donors and shown to be mostly CD4+.
In contrast to healthy donors, several T-Cell lines isolated from MS patients showed cross-reactivity between Myelin and CoronaVirus Antigens.
Overall, 29% of T-Cell lines from MS patients (10 donors) but only 1.3% of T-Cell lines from normal control subjects (2 donors) showed an HLA-DR-restricted cross-reactive pattern of Antigen activation.
After in vitro selection with either Myelin Basic Protein or human CoronaVirus strain 229E Antigens.
Moreover, reciprocal reactivities were only observed in MS patients (4 donors).
This establishes molecular mimicry between a common Viral Pathogen, such as this human CoronaVirus, and Myelin.
As a possible ImmunoPathological mechanism in MS and is consistent with the possible involvement of more than one infectious Pathogen as an environmental trigger of disease.
CoronaVirus Sequences In Multiple Sclerosis CerebroSpinal Fluid
Cristallo A; Gambaro F; Biamonti G; Ferrante P; Battaglia M; Cereda PM
New Microbiol 20: 105-14 (1997)
Univ of Pavia, Institute of BioChemistry, Italy
Human CoronaViruses, represented by the two prototype strains HCV-OC43 and HCV-229E, are important human respiratory Pathogens, also associated with Necrotizing Enterocolitis.
Two previous studies, one describing the electron microscopic observation of doughnut-shaped particles, resembling CoronaViruses, in a PeriVascular inflammatory Lesion of Brain tissue taken at autopsy from a Multiple Sclerosis patient.
The other one reporting the isolation of CoronaViruses from the Brains of two Multiple Sclerosis patients, suggested the possible association between CoronaViruses and human DeMyelinating Diseases.
We analyzed polyadenylated RNAs extracted from CerebroSpinal Fluid of twenty randomly selected Multiple Sclerosis patients and ten patients with other Neurological Diseases:
Medullary Atrophy, Parkinson's Disease, PolyNeuropathy, Senile Dementia, Headache and Toxic PolyNeuropathy) by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction searching for HCV-OC43 and HCV-229E sequences.
By hybridization analysis of amplification products, we detected HCV-OC43 polyadenylated RNAs in ten specimens of patients with Multiple Sclerosis.
Furthermore, we found positive hybridization signals for HCV-OC43 in the other Neurological Diseases, except for the Toxic PolyNeuropathy specimen.
Positivity for HCV-229E was observed in seven specimens of Multiple Sclerosis CerebroSpinal Fluid; one Headache CerebroSpinal Fluid and the Medullary Atrophy specimen also resulted positive for HCV-229E.
Moreover, using a solid phase technique, we report for the first time the sequence of a cDNA fragment derived from RNA extracted from CerebroSpinal Fluid of Multiple Sclerosis patient, belonging to the open reading frame which codes for the HCV-OC43 nucleoprotein N.
Furthermore, cDNA sequences revealed the presence of a mixed Viral population.
CoronaViruses Found In Acute MonoSymptomatic Optic Neuritis CerebroSpinal Fluid
Dessau RB, Lisby G, Frederiksen JL
Acta Neurol Scand 1999 Aug;100(2):88-91
Herlev Univ Hospital, Dept of Clinical Microbiology, Denmark
PMID# 10442448; UI# 99369052
Acute MonoSymptomatic Optic Neuritis (AMON) may be an initial symptom of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). CoronaViruses have been implicated in the etiology of MS.
The objective of the present study was to look for CoronaViral RNA in AMON, which could be present in the initial stages of the development of MS.
Material And Methods
Spinal Fluids from 37 patients with AMON and 15 surgical control patients with protrusion of the InterVertebral Disk.
Were assayed with a nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction with primers specific for human CoronaViruses strain (HCV) 229E and OC43.
Four patients and 1 control were positive for HCV-229E. No evidence of HCV-OC43 was found.
The frequency of positive samples was low and there was no statistical difference between AMON and controls.
This study does not provide evidence for an etiological role of human CoronaViruses in Acute MonoSymptomatic Optic Neuritis.