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Mitochondria Dysfunction In MS 01

  1. The involvement of Mitochondria in the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis
    J NeuroImmunol 2007 Aug;188(1-2):1-12

  2. Role of Mitochondria in Multiple Sclerosis
    Curr Neurol NeuroSci Rep 2006 May;6(3):244-52

  3. Mitochondrial dysfunction as a cause of Axonal degeneration in Multiple Sclerosis patients
    Ann Neurol 2006 Mar;59(3):478-89

  4. TRAIL-induced death of human adult Oligodendrocytes is mediated by JNK pathway
    Glia 2006 Jan 15;53(2):158-66

  5. Cytokine toxicity to Oligodendrocyte Precursors is mediated by Iron
    Glia 2005 Nov 15;52(3):199-208

  6. Mitochondrial damage and histotoxic Hypoxia: a pathway of tissue injury in Inflammatory Brain Disease?
    Acta NeuroPathol (Berl) 2005 Jan 11

  7. Neuritic beading induced by activated Microglia is an early feature of Neuronal dysfunction toward Neuronal death by inhibition of Mitochondrial respiration and Axonal transport
    J Biol Chem 2005 Mar 18;280(11):10444-54

  8. A Mitochondrial component of NeuroDegeneration in Multiple Sclerosis
    NeuroMolecular Med 2003;3(3):147-58

  9. Blockers of Sodium and Calcium entry protect Axons from Nitric Oxide-mediated degeneration
    Ann Neurol 2003 Feb;53(2):174-80

  10. ProInflammatory Cytokines promote Glial Heme Oxygenase-1 expression and Mitochondrial Iron deposition: implications for Multiple Sclerosis
    J NeuroChem 2001 Jun 1;77(5):1386-1395

  11. Multiple Sclerosis and Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Mitochondrial DNA mutations
    Rev Neurol (Paris) 2001 May;157(5):537-541

  1. Mitochondria in Multiple Sclerosis
    Front Biosci 2008 Jan 1;13:3116-26

  2. Review: Oxidative Stress and ExcitoToxicity: a therapeutic issue in Multiple Sclerosis?
    Mult Scler 2008 Jan;14(1):22-34

  3. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Dendritic Beading during Neuronal toxicity
    J Biol Chem 2007 Sep 7;282(36):26235-44

  4. Cyclophilin D inactivation protects Axons in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, an animal model of Multiple Sclerosis
    Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007 May 1;104(18):7558-63

  5. Peroxynitrite-induced Oligodendrocyte toxicity is not dependent on poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation
    Glia 2003 Jan 15;41(2):105-16

  6. Review: Mitochondria and disease progression in Multiple Sclerosis
    NeuroPathol Appl NeuroBiol 2008 Dec;34(6):577-89



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#1

Mitochondria In Multiple Sclerosis

Ghafourifar P, Mousavizadeh K, Parihar MS, Nazarewicz RR, Parihar A, Zenebe WJ
Front Biosci 2008 Jan 1;13:3116-26
Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, Department of Surgery, and The Ohio State University, Institute of Mitochondrial Biology, Columbus, Ohio, USA
PMID# 17981781
Abstract

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a Neurological Disorder of the Central Nervous System characterized by DeMyelination and NeuroDegeneration.

Although the pathogenesis of MS is not completely understood, various studies suggest that Immune-mediated loss of Myelin and Mitochondrial Dysfunction are associated with the disease.

Mitochondria are one of the main cellular sources of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) and play a pivotal role in many Neuro-Pathological conditions.

Mitochondrial Dysfunction leading to excessive production of ROS and RNS plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of MS.

Particularly in loss of Myelin/Oligodendrocyte complex. The present review summarizes critical role of Mitochondria in the pathogenesis of MS.

Further understanding of the role of Mitochondria in MS may provide rationale for novel approaches to this disease and development of novel therapeutic maneuvers.



#2

Review: Oxidative Stress And ExcitoToxicity: A Therapeutic Issue In Multiple Sclerosis?

Gonsette RE
Mult Scler 2008 Jan;14(1):22-34
National Centre for Multiple Sclerosis, B 1820 Melsbroek, Belgium
PMID# 17881394
Abstract

There is increasing evidence that Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is not only characterized by Immune mediated inflammatory reactions but also by NeuroDegenerative processes.

In NeuroDegenerative Diseases, Neuronal and Axonal Loss is mediated by Oxidative Stress and ExcitoToxicity which constitute a final common toxic pathway.

Importantly, Peroxynitrite is the key mediator of those two intertwined pathomechanisms.

In MS, Peroxynitrite is consistently associated with active lesions and produces highly toxic Nitrating and Oxidizing radical species that alter Lipid, Protein, DNA and Mitochondrial structures and functions.

During the Remitting phase, Peroxynitrite participates to Neuron and Oligodendrocyte damage in association with inflammatory processes.

During the chronic phase, Peroxynitrite contributes to self-perpetuating mechanisms responsible for disease progression.

Neutralization of Oxidative Stress and ExcitoToxicity, and in particular of Peroxynitrite derived free radicals, might represent a therapeutic approach to provide NeuroProtection in MS.

Multiple Sclerosis 2008; 14: 22-34. http://msj.sagepub.com.



#3

Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Dendritic Beading During Neuronal Toxicity

Greenwood SM, Mizielinska SM, Frenguelli BG, Harvey J, Connolly CN
J Biol Chem 2007 Sep 7;282(36):26235-44
University of Dundee, Dundee DD19SY, Ninewells Medical School, NeuroSciences Institute, Scotland, United Kingdom
PMID# 17616519
Abstract

Mitochondrial Dysfunction (depolarization and structural collapse), cytosolic ATP depletion, and Neuritic Beading are early hallmarks of Neuronal toxicity induced in a variety of pathological conditions.

We show that, following global exposure to Glutamate, Mitochondrial changes are spatially and temporally coincident with Dendritic Bead formation.

During Oxygen-Glucose deprivation, Mitochondrial depolarization precedes Mitochondrial collapse, which in turn is followed by Dendritic Beading.

These events travel as a wave of activity from distal Dendrites toward the Neuronal Cell Body.

Despite the SpatioTemporal relationship between dysfunctional Mitochondria and Dendritic Beads, Mitochondrial depolarization and cytoplasmic ATP depletion do not trigger these events.

However, Mitochondrial Dysfunction increases Neuronal vulnerability to these morphological changes during normal physiological activity.

Our findings support a mechanism whereby, during Glutamate ExcitoToxicity, Ca2+ influx leads to Mitochondrial depolarization, whereas Na+ influx leads to an unsustainable increase in ATP demand (Na+, K+-ATPase activity).

This leads to a drop in ATP levels, an accumulation of IntraCellular Na+ Ions, and the subsequent influx of water, leading to MicroTubule depolymerization, Mitochondrial collapse, and Dendritic Beading.

Following the removal of a Glutamate challenge, Dendritic recovery is dependent upon the integrity of the Mitochondrial membrane potential, but not on a resumption of ATP synthesis or Na+,K+-ATPase activity.

Thus, Dendritic recovery is not a passive reversal of the events that induce Dendritic Beading.

These findings suggest that the degree of Calcium influx and Mitochondrial depolarization inflicted by a NeuroToxic challenge, determines the ability of the Neuron to recover its normal morphology.



#4

Cyclophilin D Inactivation Protects Axons In Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, An Animal Model Of Multiple Sclerosis

Forte M, Gold BG, Marracci G, Chaudhary P, Basso E, Johnsen D, Yu X, Fowlkes J, Rahder M, Stem K, Bernardi P, Bourdette D
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007 May 1;104(18):7558-63
Oregon Health and Science University, Vollum Institute, Portland, OR 97239, USA
PMID# 17463082
Abstract

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the leading cause of Neurological Disability in young adults, affecting some two million people worldwide.

Traditionally, MS has been considered a chronic, inflammatory disorder of the Central White Matter in which ensuing DeMyelination results in physical disability [Frohman EM, Racke MK, Raine CS (2006) N Engl J Med 354:942-955].

More recently, MS has become increasingly viewed as a NeuroDegenerative Disorder in which Neuronal Loss, Axonal Injury, and Atrophy of the CNS lead to permanent Neurological and clinical disability.

Although Axonal pathology and loss in MS has been recognized for >100 years, very little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms.

Progressive Axonal Loss in MS may stem from a cascade of Ionic imbalances initiated by inflammation, leading to Mitochondrial Dysfunction and energetic deficits that result in Mitochondrial and cellular Ca2+ overload.

In a murine disease model, Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice lacking Cyclophilin D (CyPD), a key regulator of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore (PTP), developed EAE.

But unlike WT mice, they partially recovered. Examination of the Spinal Cords of CyPD-knockout mice revealed a striking preservation of Axons, despite a similar extent of inflammation.

Furthermore, Neurons prepared from CyPD-knockout animals were resistant to Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen species thought to mediate Axonal Damage in EAE and MS, and Brain Mitochondria lacking CyPD sequestered substantially higher levels of Ca2+.

Our results directly implicate pathological activation of the Mitochondrial PTP in the Axonal Damage occurring during MS and identify CyPD, as well as the PTP, as a potential target for MS MS NeuroProtective therapies.



#5

Peroxynitrite-Induced Oligodendrocyte Toxicity Is Not Dependent On Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Activation

Scott GS, Virág L, Szabó C, Hooper DC
Glia 2003 Jan 15;41(2):105-16
Thomas Jefferson University, Department of MicroBiology and Immunology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
PMID# 12509801
Abstract

Oligodendrocyte loss is a characteristic feature of several CNS disorders, including Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Spinal Cord Injury.

However, the mechanisms responsible for Oligodendrocyte destruction remain undefined. As recent studies have implicated Peroxynitrite in the pathogenesis of both Spinal Cord Injury and MS.

We have examined whether Peroxynitrite may mediate at least some of the Oligodendrocyte damage and DeMyelination observed in these conditions. Primary rat Oligodendrocytes were exposed to authentic Peroxynitrite in vitro and assessed for CytoToxicity.

Mitochondrial function, measured by the reduction of MTT to formazan, and Mitochondrial membrane potential were used as indicators of cell viability.

Cell death was quantitated by measuring either the release of Lactate Dehydrogenase from, or the uptake of Propidium Iodide into, damaged and dying cells.

Peroxynitrite dose-dependently reduced the viability of primary Oligodendrocytes and induced cell death. Furthermore, Peroxynitrite significantly increased DNA strand breakage and the activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in Oligodendrocyte cultures.

To identify whether PARP activation plays a role in Peroxynitrite-induced Oligodendrocyte toxicity, we examined the effects of the PARP inhibitors 3-AminoBenzamide (3AB) and 5-Iodo-6-Amino-1,2-Benzopyrone (INH(2)BP) on Mitochondrial function and cell death in Oligodendrocytes.

The presence of 3AB and INH(2)BP did not protect Oligodendrocytes from Peroxynitrite-induced CytoToxicity. However, both compounds significantly reduced PARP activity in these cells.

Primary Oligodendrocytes generated from PARP-deficient mice were also highly susceptible to Peroxynitrite-induced cell death. Therefore, our results show that Peroxynitrite exerts CytoToxic effects on Oligodendrocytes in vitro independently of PARP activation.

Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.



#6

Review: Mitochondria And Disease Progression In Multiple Sclerosis

Mahad D, Lassmann H, Turnbull D
NeuroPathol Appl NeuroBiol 2008 Dec;34(6):577-89
University of Newcastle upon Tyne, The Mitochondrial Research Group, Newcastle, UK
PMID# 19076696
Abstract

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an Inflammatory DeMyelinating Disease of the Central Nervous System.

Recent evidence suggests that dysfunction of surviving DeMyelinated Axons and Axonal degeneration contribute to the progression of MS.

We review the evidence for and potential mechanisms of degeneration as well as dysfunction of chronically DeMyelinated Axons in MS with particular reference to Mitochondria, the main source of Adenosine-5'-Triphosphate in Axons.

Besides Adenosine-5'-Triphosphate production, Mitochondria play an important role in Calcium handling and produce reactive oxygen species.

The Mitochondrial changes in Axons lacking healthy Myelin Sheaths as well as redistribution of Sodium Channels suggest that DeMyelinated Axons would be more vulnerable to energy deficit than Myelinated Axons.

A dysfunction of Mitochondria in lesions as well as in the Normal-Appearing White and Gray Matter is increasingly recognized in MS and could be an important determinant of Axonal Dysfunction and degeneration. Mitochondria are a potential therapeutic target in MS.



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