Macrophage - Develop from Monocytes, a Phagocyte Cell that helps initiate and is involved in all stages of Immune Responses. It recognizes and can digest (Phagocytize) all foreign Antigens (ie. Bacteria, Viruses) and Cell Debris. Macrophages are also an integral part of DeMyelination and participate in tissue repairs.
- In the CNS, they are called Microglia Cells, and Kupffer Cells in the Liver, where they Phagocytize Bacteria, other Pathogens, and old red blood cells. #25, #27
Macrophage-Activating Factor (MAF) - Actually several Cytokines, including Interferon, released by activated T-Cells, which together induce activation of Macrophages, making them more efficient in Phagocytosis and CytoToxic functions.
Mast Cells - Develop from Basophil Cells (PolyMorphoNuclear Leukocytes), they reside in tissues, regulating Vascular Permeability (Blood-Brain Barrier) and Smooth Muscles. Mast Cells possess IgE receptors, participating in immediate hypersensitivity reactions by degranulation (Release) of Heparin, Serotonin, Histamine, and other VasoActive Amines.
Microglia - (See: Glia Cells - Microglia)
MonoClonal AntiBodies - Are laboratory-produced AntiBodies, which can be programmed to react against a specific Antigen, in order to suppress Immune Responses. #28
Monocyte Cells - Develop from Stem Cells, are effective Antigen Presenting Cells, and patrol the bloodstream, searching for Antigens. In time, Monocytes migrate into tissue and develop into Macrophages. #30
Multiple Sclerosis - Is a Chronic Neurologic Disease of the Central Nervous System (CNS), occurring only in humans. MS is classified as both, a DeMyelinating and an Axonal Disease.
(See: Multiple Sclerosis as a Neuronal Disease)
- Although increasing evidence points to an AutoImmune aspect, no single Antigen or Immune System Dysfunction has been identified and the cause of MS remains unknown.
(See: Multiple Sclerosis - The range of MS disease patterns, stages, and symptoms, with explanations of today's standard diagnostic tests.)
Myelin - A fatty (Lipid) substance forming a multi-layered sheath around some Nerve Fibers (Axons) in the Central, Autonomic and Peripheral Nervous Systems. Within the CNS, Myelin is formed by Oligodendeocytes and consists of their Cell Membranes (CytoPlasmic Extensions), which wrap themselves around Axons. (View Image)
- This Myelin Sheath covers and insulates sections (InterNodes) of CNS Axons, thereby reducing the electrical Capacitance between a Neuron's negatively charged Axonal Membrane (InterNodal Axolemma) and the surrounding positively charged ExtraCellular Fluid.
- Myelin greatly increases the conducting velocity of an Action Potential; while expending much less energy than an UnMyelinated Axon would require, to send an identical Action Potential, along the same distance. #01, #25
Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) - One of the components of Myelin, which may be increased in the CerebroSpinal Fluid of some - but not all MSers - following a DeMyelinating episode.
- MBP is positively charged and gets in between the Myelin BiLayers to link up the negatively-charged Lipids and glue the Myelin Sheath together. #25
- An inflammatory disease of the Spinal Cord. In Transverse Myelitis, the inflammation spreads across the Spinal Cord, resulting in a loss of its normal function to transmit Nerve impulses up and down, as though the Spinal Cord had been severed. #28
(ParaMyxoVirus) - A Virus which causes disease in Mucous Tissue such as the Throat, Mouth, or Lung. ex: (Influenza). #09 (See: Virus)