>I also have spinal sclerotic tissue, "at" T9 was the one that produced
>the bilateral numbness from saddle area to tips of toes. The Neuro
>circled the area on the MRI film for me, then told me "Yes, it is
>Multiple Sclerosis". (My official dx in 5/92)
Anatomy & Physiology - 1992
Rod R. Steeley, PhD.; Trent D. Stephens, PHd.; Philip Tate, D.A.
The Medulla Oblongata, Pons, and MidBrain constitute the BrainStem. It connects the Spinal Cord to the remainder of the Brain and is responsible for many essential functions.
Damage to small BrainStem areas often cause death, whereas relatively large areas of the Cerebrum or Cerebellum may be damaged without causing permanent symptoms.
All but two of the 12 Cranial Nerves enter or exit the Brain through the
The Medulla Oblongata is approx. 3 cm long, it is the most inferior (bottom) portion of the BrainStem and is continuous inferiorly with the Spinal Cord.
Superficially the Spinal Cord blends into the Medulla but internally there are several differences.
Discrete Nuclei (clusters of Gray Matter, composed mostly of Cell Bodies, surrounded by White Matter) with specific functions are found within the Medulla Oblongata but not within the Spinal Cord.
In addition, the Spinal Cord tracts that pass through the Medulla do NOT have the same organization as the tracts of the Spinal Cord.
is that portion of the BrainStem just superior (above) to the Medulla Oblongata.
It contains ascending and descending nerve tracts and several Nuclei. The Pontine
Nuclei, located in the anterior (front) portion of the Pons, relay information from the Cerebrum to the Cerebellum.V
and VIII (VestBuloCochlear) are contained within the posterior (rear) Pons. Other Pontine areas include the Pontine Sleep Center and the Respiratory Centers, which along with the Medullary Respiratory Centers help control Respiratory movements.
The nuclei for Cranial Nerves
The MidBrain or MesenCephalon, is the smallest region of the BrainStem. It is superior to the Pons and contains the Nuclei of Cranial Nerves III (OcculoMotor) and IV (Trochlear).
(roof) of the MidBrain consists of four Nuclei that form mounds on the dorsal surface, collectively called Corpor (Bodies) Quadrigemina (four twins).
Each mound is called a Colliculus (hill); there are two Superior Colliculi and two Inferior Colliculi.
>> The MidBrain contains the Thalamus, which is the
>> control center governing the Hormones and thereby ruling
>> the Emotions; it is some times called the Limbic System
>> (DienCephalon). All nerves travel from the Cerebrum
>> (top of the brain) to the Cerebellum (rear Bottom) to the
>> Thalamus, both incoming positional sense and the outgoing
>> orders. Any disruption in this loop will naturally cause
>> problems, some messages are not received, mis-sent, or only
>> partly received.
> >The NeuroPsychological
Evaluation is done over a number
>> of sessions, generally taking from 2 - 4 weeks to complete. It
>> basically entails testing everything about you and comparing
>> your scores to the "norm" for your age & sex category. The tests
>> include: an IQ test; memory - both short & long term tests; strength
>> testing of limbs & grip; how socially adjusted you are; how you
>> present yourself & appear; how you react to
emotional stress; tests
>> of spatial relationships and recall; they test how you recall things,
>> that is which methods of memorization you use - visualization,
>> association, grouping similar items vs. order of presentation, etc.
>Seems like a thorough exam. I wonder though, how can one's
>IQ be determined when there is cognitive dysfunction? Mine
>*was* in the 130's range; no genius, no schlock. Would there
>not be a mighty big decrease in the number, *because* of the
>disease? I guess it doesn't *really* matter, my days of dazzling
> the world with my brilliance [or baffling with bullsh*t] are long
>ago and far away.
>> I'm sure I left something out, but I hope this will give you
>>a fair idea.
>Indeed it does.
>> They usually do try and gauge whether or not you are currently
>> depressed. Psychologist are trained in finding the physiological
>> causes of mental problems.
>Is there such a thing as a "Neuropsychologist" discipline? Or is that
>implied with the title of "Psychologist"? I thought, until this response
>from you, that the only difference between and Psychologist and a
>Psychiatrist was that only the latter can write prescriptions
Neuropsychologist are indeed another specialized branch of the ever
increasing number of "experts". If you can find and afford one, you are
really good!! Actually, whichever type of doctor performs the testing
doesn't really matter, as they are all medically qualified. The important
difference is whether the doc "knows" anything regarding MS!!!!
Before you decide which one to see, interview them
by phone first. They may not say they don't know; but if you make them aware that you know MS does make you different - as MS involves the entire CNS - you can bet they will know more, when you actually do get tested. /:-)
treat mental problems which have no physiological
>> basis and are therefore considered to be of a "mental" or so called
>> maladjustment to social circumstances.
>> Neurologist treat problems of the physical nerves themselves. To
>> them, a nerve conducts a message which is either
>> abnormal. They can only "see" the physical parts
of the nervous
>> system, it either is or isn't conducting.
> That's about the only medical discipline I *could* define!
>> Hmmmm.... about par for the course, I'd say. Today these
>> are each separate branches of medicine, having very little
>> to do with each other.
> How odd that, with a disease like MS, the Neurologists
> Psychologists don't work hand in hand, as a matter
of course in the
> treatment of MS.
>> Many of the new larger MS treatment centers now do incorporate
>> all the various disciplines: neuro, psych, rehab, pt, and if you're
>> lucky a nutritionist.
>> One hundred and some odd number of years ago, when MS was first
>> discovered, this was not the case. Dr Freud's first patient was his
>> former Nanny, whom he treated for MS.
>I read that at your Website - found it very interesting.
>> For all too many years, MS was considered to be a part of the
>>"female syndrome" and therefore, not much real investigation was
>>done until recent times.
> *That* would explain why [perceived] I was treated like just another
> hysterical female when first I complained about fatigue and curling
> up *and* under of the toes.
This is a very common early sign of Spasticity in MS, as are Clonus and a positive Babinski Sign.
For years I could never keep shoes on all day without my feet cramping, generally right in the arches. I found it helps to massage my feet, toes, and stretch the ankles, calves, and hamstrings.
If you stand on a step with only your toes on the step
- hold the railing for balance - gently lower your body by relaxing the ankles and feet only.
You can alternate legs and progress to the point where you can incorporate a slight bend of the knee, and raise yourself up on your toes at the top of the movement.
Also if you recall the old hurtler's stretch - one leg up on a chair, sink, railing, wall, anything that will allow you to extend one leg at a 90 angle to the body and not fall will do. You bend from the waist, and gently try to bring your head to your knee.
This will not be as easy as it once was :-) so go slowly. The old way of during this on the floor, sitting with one leg stretched out in front and the other knee bent, is now considered too dangerous for the spine.
>> I'm glad you self-referred yourself, and hope you
can make sense out of this "quick" post.
> > Happy Valentine's Day !!!
>Same to you, Tom. Thank you so much for your quick
>response. I can't wait to read the other two you