Cognitive Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis
II. Employment And Social Functioning
Rao SM, Leo GJ, Ellington L, Nauertz T, Bernardin L, Unverzagt F
Neurology 1991 May;41(5):692-6
Medical College of Wisconsin, Dept of Neurology, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226
PMID# 1823781; UI# 91226666
We designed a study to assess the specific contribution of Cognitive Dysfunction to Multiple Sclerosis patients' problems in daily living.
Based on the results of a comprehensive NeuroPsychological test battery, we classified 100 MS patients as either Cognitively intact (N = 52) or Cognitively impaired (N = 48).
In addition to a Neurologic Examination, MS patients completed questionnaires on Mood and Social Functioning, underwent a comprehensive in-home Occupational Therapy evaluation, and were rated by a close relative or friend regarding specific personality characteristics.
There were no significant differences between the two groups on measures of physical disability and illness duration.
Patients in the Cognitively impaired group were
- less likely to be working
- engaged in fewer Social and Vocational activities
- reported more Sexual Dysfunction
- experienced greater difficulty in performing routine household tasks
- exhibited more PsychoPathology than Cognitively intact patients.
These findings suggest that Cognitive Dysfunction is a major factor in determining the quality of life of patients with MS.
Guidelines For NeuroPsychological Research
In Multiple Sclerosis
Peyser JM, Rao SM, LaRocca NG, Kaplan E
Arch Neurol 1990 Jan;47(1):94-7
Univ of Vermont, Dept of Psychology, Burlington, Vermont
PMID# 2403789; UI# 90103986
Acquisition of scientific information regarding the NeuroPsychological aspects of Multiple Sclerosis has been hampered by studies using small, inadequately described patient and control samples and a wide array of Cognitive test procedures that hinder multicenter data pooling.
Based on a review of key issues of clinical need and experimental interest, research guidelines are proposed for investigations in this burgeoning research area.
The guidelines include suggestions for sampling methods, population characterization, and control groups as well as a recommended core battery of NeuroPsychological tests for use in this population.
It is hoped that these guidelines will advance knowledge about the NeuroPsychology of Multiple Sclerosis by helping to promote sound experimental design, facilitate cross-study comparison, and encourage multicenter collaborative efforts.
On The Nature Of Memory Disturbance In MS
Rao SM, Leo GJ, St Aubin-Faubert P
J Clin Exp NeuroPsychol 1989 Oct;11(5):699-712
Medical College of Wisconsin, Section of NeuroPsychology, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226
PMID# 2808659; UI# 90037468
Thirty-seven patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) were compared to 26 normal controls of equivalent age, education, and verbal intelligence on measures of:
Verbal Learning and Memory (Digit Span and Supraspan, Brown-Peterson Distractor Task, Selective Reminding Test, Story Recall, and Free Verbal Recall) and Verbal Fluency (Letter and Animal Fluency).
The MS patients exhibited deficits on measures of Secondary (Long-Term) Memory and Verbal Fluency, but performed normally on measures of Primary (Short-Term) Memory, Recognition Memory, and rate of forgetting from Secondary Memory.
These results suggest that the Memory disturbance in MS results primarily from an imparied ability to access information from Secondary Memory, while encoding and storage capacity is intact.
Degree of Memory Impairment was unrelated to length of illness, severity of Disability, or self-reported Depression.