Corpus Callosum Atrophy And Cognitive Impairment

  1. Progression of non-age-related Callosal Brain Atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis: a 9-year longitudinal MRI study representing four decades of disease development
    J Neurol NeuroSurg Psychiatry 2007 Apr;78(4):375-80

  2. Effect of Corpus Callosum damage on Ipsilateral Motor activation in patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A functional and anatomical study
    Hum Brain Mapp 2006 Nov 1

  3. Local tissue damage assessed with statistical mapping analysis of Brain Magnetization Transfer Ratio: relationship with functional status of patients in the earliest stage of Multiple Sclerosis
    AJNR Am J NeuroRadiol 2005 Jan;26(1):119-27

  4. Mechanisms of Normal-Appearing Corpus Callosum injury related to PeriCallosal T1 lesions in Multiple Sclerosis using directional Diffusion Tensor and 1H MRS imaging
    J Neurol NeuroSurg Psychiatry 2004 Sep;75(9):1281-6

  5. Multiple Sclerosis pathology in the Normal and Abnormal Appearing White Matter of the Corpus Callosum by Diffusion Tensor Imaging
    Mult Scler 2004 Aug;10(4):392-7

  6. Corpus Callosum Axonal injury in Multiple Sclerosis measured by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic imaging
    Arch Neurol 2004 Jul;61(7):1081-6

  7. Directional Diffusion in Relapsing/Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: a possible in vivo signature of Wallerian Degeneration
    J Magn Reson Imaging 2003 Oct;18(4):420-6

  8. Diffusely elevated Cerebral Choline and Creatine in Relapsing/Remitting Multiple Sclerosis
    Magn Reson Med 2003 Jul;50(1):190-5

  9. Cognitive correlates of SupraTentorial Atrophy on MRI in Multiple Sclerosis
    Acta Neurol Scand 2001 Oct;104(4):214-23

  10. Correlations of Brain MRI parameters to disability in Multiple Sclerosis
    Acta Neurol Scand 2001 Jul;104(1):24-30

  11. Magnetization Transfer imaging and Proton MR Spectroscopy in the evaluation of Axonal injury: correlation with clinical outcome after Traumatic Brain Injury
    AJNR Am J NeuroRadiol 2001 Jan;22(1):143-51

  12. Classification of acquired lesions of the Corpus Callosum with MRI
    NeuroRadiology 2000 Nov;42(11):795-802

  13. Regional Axonal loss in the Corpus Callosum Correlates with Cerebral White Matter lesion volume and distribution in Multiple Sclerosis
    Brain 2000 Sep;123(Pt 9):1845-1849

  14. Quantitative pathological evidence for Axonal loss in Normal-Appearing White Matter in Multiple Sclerosis
    Ann Neurol 2000 Mar;47(3):391-5

  15. Brain Atrophy in Relapsing/Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: relationship with 'black holes', disease duration and clinical disability
    J Neurol Sci 2000 Mar 15;174(2):85-91

  16. MT of Normal-Appearing White Matter in Primary/Progressive Multiple Sclerosis
    Mult Scler 1999 Oct;5(5):313-6

  17. A longitudinal study of Brain atrophy in Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis. The Multiple Sclerosis Collaborative Research Group
    Neurology 1999 Jul 13;53(1):139-48

  1. Atrophy of the Corpus Callosum, Cortical HypoMetabolism, and Cognitive Impairment in CorticoBasal Degeneration
    Arch Neurol 1998 May;55(5):609-14

  2. Diffusion Anisotropy in the Corpus Callosum
    AJNR Am J NeuroRadiol 2002 May;23(5):803-8

  3. Preferential occult injury of Corpus Callosum in Multiple Sclerosis measured by Diffusion Tensor imaging
    J Magn Reson Imaging 2004 Jul;20(1):1-7

  4. Characterization of Central Nervous System structures by Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Anisotropy
    NeuroChem Int 2004 Sep;45(4):553-60

  5. Conduction deficits of Callosal Fibres in early Multiple Sclerosis
    J Neurol NeuroSurg Psychiatry 2000 May;68(5):633-8


Atrophy Of The Corpus Callosum, Cortical HypoMetabolism, And Cognitive Impairment In CorticoBasal Degeneration

Hiroshi Yamauchi, MD, PhD; Hidenao Fukuyama, MD, PhD; Yasuhiro Nagahama, MD, PhD; Yukinori Katsumi, MD; Yun Dong, MD; Takuya Hayashi, MD; Junji Konishi, MD, PhD; Jun Kimura, MD
Arch Neurol 1998 May;55(5):609-14
PMID# 9605717; UI# 98266754

To investigate whether Atrophy of the Corpus Callosum is associated with Cognitive Impairment and Cerebral Cortical HypoMetabolism in CorticoBasal Degeneration.

Design & Patients
Prospective ClinicoRadiological correlation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in a university hospital.

Eight right-handed patients with clinically diagnosed Corticobasal Degeneration (mean±SD age, 64±8 years).

Main Outcome Measures
Midsagittal Corpus Callosum area-skull area ratio on T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Images.

The sum of the scaled scores of the 6 subtests on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (Digit Span, Arithmetic, Picture Arrangement, Object Assembly, Block Design, and Digit Symbol).

And, Cerebral metabolic rate of Glucose (measured with PET by using FludeoxyGlucose F 18 as a tracer).

Compared with 36 age-matched right handed control subjects, the patients had significantly decreased Callosal area - skull area ratio.

The reduction in this ratio was greatest in the middle half of the Corpus Callosum.

The Atrophy of the Corpus Callosum was accompanied by a decreased mean Cortical Glucose metabolic rate with Hemispheric Asymmetry and a decrease in the sum of the scaled subtest scores of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised.

Atrophy of the Corpus Callosum with middle predominance is present in CorticoBasal Degeneration, and this Atrophy is associated with Cognitive Impairment and Cerebral Cortical HypoMetabolism with Hemispheric Asymmetry.

Atrophy of the Corpus Callosum might reflect the severity of the disconnection between Cortical regions. And, this may be an important factor in the development of Cerebral Cortical Dysfunction in CorticoBasal Degeneration.


Diffusion Anisotropy In The Corpus Callosum

Chepuri NB, Yen YF, Burdette JH, Li H, Moody DM, Maldjian JA
AJNR Am J NeuroRadiol 2002 May;23(5):803-8
Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Bowman Gray Campus, Department of Radiology, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
PMID# 12006281

Background And Purpose
The Corpus Callosum is a heterogeneous White-Matter Tract that connects the Cerebral Hemispheres. The purpose of this investigation was to study its MicroStructural architecture in normal human adult Brains by using Diffusion Tensor imaging (DTI).

Two hundred consecutive patients referred for Brain MR imaging underwent additional DTI with a high gradient field strength applied in six directions.

Forty-two patients met the following inclusion criteria: 1) normal Brain and 2) age greater than 18 years. Anisotropy maps were generated, and regions of interest were drawn around specified regions within the Corpus Callosum.

Results were stratified by sex and age. In addition, available Histologic specimens of the Corpus Callosum from cadaver Brains were analyzed with conventional and specialized Vascular staining.

Anisotropy values in the various regions of the Corpus Callosum differed significantly. Average values of the Anisotropy index for the Genu, Body, and Splenium of the Corpus Callosum were 0.400, 0.456, and 0.539, respectively.

The differences between these values are statistically significant (P < .01). Increased Anisotropy was present in posterior areas in both sexes and in all three age groups examined.

The results of this investigation show a statistically significant increase in Anisotropy of the Corpus Callosum in its more posterior portions compared with its more anterior portions across sex and age groups.

Although the MicroStructural Etiology for this apparent increase in Anisotropy is unclear, a number of possible mechanisms are presented.


Preferential Occult Injury Of Corpus Callosum In Multiple Sclerosis Measured By Diffusion Tensor Imaging

Ge Y, Law M, Johnson G, Herbert J, Babb JS, Mannon LJ, Grossman RI
J Magn Reson Imaging 2004 Jul;20(1):1-7
New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, New York 10016, USA
PMID# 15221802

To investigate the feasibility of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) assessment of microscopic Fiber Tract Injury in the Corpus Callosum (CC) and other Normal-Appearing White Matter (NAWM) in patients with early Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

Materials And Methods
DTI was performed in 12 healthy volunteers and 15 patients who have relatively short disease duration (mean = 2.7 years).

Both Fractional Anisotropy (FA) and Mean Diffusivity (MD) were obtained in different regions of Normal-Appearing CC (NACC) and NAWM in Frontal and Occipital regions.

The data showed significantly lower FA (P < 0.001) and higher MD (P < 0.04) for NACC regions.

But not for Frontal and Occipital NAWM regions, in patients than in those in healthy volunteers after Bonferroni adjustment.

The increase of MD in the entire NACC regions was correlated with the total Cerebral lesion volume (r = 0.75, P = 0.001) in patients.

The water Diffusion changes indicate that in the early phase of disease there is a preferential occult injury of CC, which is likely due to the Wallerian Degeneration from distant lesions.

Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Characterization Of Central Nervous System Structures By Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Anisotropy

Mamata H, Jolesz FA, Maier SE
NeuroChem Int 2004 Sep;45(4):553-60
Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
PMID# 15186922

Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) provides information about tissue water Diffusion.

Diffusion Anisotropy, which can be measured with Diffusion Tensor MRI, is a quantitative measure of the directional dependence of the Diffusion restriction that is introduced by biological structures such as Nerve Fibers.

Diffusion Tensor MRI data was obtained in the Brain, BrainStem, and Cervical Spinal Cord. For each region, scans were performed in four normal volunteers.

Fractional Anisotropy (FA), an index of Diffusion Anisotropy, was measured within regions of interest located:

In the Corpus Callosum, Internal Capsule, Thalamus, Caudate Nucleus, Putamen, Brain Cortex, Pyramidal Tract of the Medulla, Accessory Olivary Nucleus, Dorsal Olivary Nucleus, Inferior Olivary Nucleus, Spinal White and Gray Matter.

The highest FA value was measured in the Corpus Callosum (81 +/- 3%). The values of the other areas decreased in the following order:

  1. Pyramidal Tract in the Medulla (72 +/- 1%)
  2. Spinal White Matter (65 +/- 4%)
  3. Internal Capsule (62 +/- 3%)
  4. Accessory Olivary Nucleus (36 +/- 2%)
  5. Spinal Gray Matter (35 +/- 5%)
  6. Dorsal Olivary Nucleus in the Medulla (29 +/- 2%)
  7. Thalamus (28 +/- 2%)
  8. Inferior Olivary Nucleus (15 +/- 2%)
  9. Putamen (13 +/- 2%)
  10. Caudate Nucleus (13 +/- 2%)
  11. Brain Cortex (9 +/- 1%) (View Image)

Our results indicate that the underlying Fiber architecture, Fiber density, and uniformity of Nerve Fiber direction affect Anisotropy values of the various structures.

Characterization of various Central Nervous System structures with Diffusion Anisotropy is possible and may be useful to monitor Degenerative Diseases in the Central Nervous System.

Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.


Conduction Deficits Of Callosal Fibres
In Early Multiple Sclerosis

Schmierer K, Niehaus L, Roricht S, Meyer BU
J Neurol NeuroSurg Psychiatry 2000 May;68(5):633-8
Humboldt-University, Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Neurology, Unit for Motor Disturbances and Cortex Function, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13344 Berlin, Germany
PMID# 10766896

To study the diagnostic usefulness of TransCallosal Inhibition (TI) elicited by TransCranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in detecting Central Conduction Deficits in early Multiple Sclerosis.

CorticoSpinally mediated excitatory responses evoked by TMS are accepted as a sensitive diagnostic tool in Multiple Sclerosis.

Recently, TI evoked by TMS has been introduced as a new paradigm to test the function of Callosal Fibers interconnecting both hand associated Motor Cortices.

Focal TMS of the Motor Cortex was performed in 50 patients with early Relapsing/Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

CorticoSpinally mediated (Central Motor Latencies, Amplitudes) and TransCallosally mediated (onset latency and duration of TI) stimulation effects were investigated.

TMS disclosed abnormalities of CorticoSpinally mediated responses in 62% and of TI in 80% of the patients.

The assessment of TI allows the discovery of lesions within the PeriVentricular White Matter that were not accessible by NeuroPhysiological techniques before.

This new paradigm increases the sensitivity of TMS with which to detect Central Conduction Deficits in early Multiple Sclerosis.

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