Gait In Multiple Sclerosis

  1. Motor determinants of gait in 100 ambulatory patients with Multiple Sclerosis
    Mult Scler 2005 Aug;11(4):485-91

  2. Change in MS-related disability in a population-based cohort: a 10-year follow-up study
    Neurology 2004 Jan 13;62(1):51-9

  3. Changes in gait and Fatigue from morning to afternoon in people with Multiple Sclerosis
    J Neurol NeuroSurg Psychiatry 2002 Mar;72(3):361-5

  1. Relation between walking speed and muscle strength is affected by SomatoSensory Loss in Multiple Sclerosis
    J Neurol NeuroSurg Psychiatry 2002 Sep;73(3):313-5

  2. Gait abnormalities in minimally impaired Multiple Sclerosis
    Mult Scler 1999 Oct;5(5):363-8

  3. Multiple Sclerosis. Clinical survey of 50 patients followed at the Ambulatory of Neurology UNIFESP-EPM
    Arq NeuroPsiquiatr 1999 Mar;57(1):51-5

  4. The measurement of Ambulatory Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis
    Neurology 1997 Nov;49(5):1419-24

  5. Relationship between Gait speed and strength parameters in Multiple Sclerosis
    Ann Readapt Med Phys 2003 Mar;46(2):85-90

  6. Strength, Postural and Gait changes following rehabilitation in Multiple Sclerosis: a preliminary study
    Ann Readapt Med Phys 2006 May;49(4):143-9

  7. Gait and Balance impairment in early Multiple Sclerosis in the absence of clinical disability
    Mult Scler 2006 Oct;12(5):620-8


Relation Between Walking Speed And Muscle Strength Is Affected By SomatoSensory Loss In Multiple Sclerosis

Thoumie P, Mevellec E
J Neurol NeuroSurg Psychiatry 2002 Sep;73(3):313-5
Service de Reeducation Neuro-Orthopedique, Inserm U 483, Hopital Rothschild, 33 boulevard de Picpus, F-75012 Paris, France
PMID# 12185167

To evaluate the correlation between Gait speed and strength in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) with particular regard to patients presenting with Proprioceptive Loss.

Gait evaluation and IsoKinetic testing of muscular function were performed in 20 patients with unaided Gait (Expanded Disability Status Scale < 6).

Patients were separated into two groups in relation to the occurrence of SomatoSensory involvement: Pyramidal group (8 patients) and Sensory-Pyramidal group (12 patients).

Ten healthy subjects of similar age, sex, and height constituted a control group to evaluate Gait parameters.

In the whole patient group, Gait speed was reduced and strongly related to Hamstring peak torque but not with Quadriceps peak torque.

The Gait speed and peak torques of Quadriceps and Hamstrings were similar in both groups of patients.

However, in the patients with Proprioceptive Loss there was both a strong correlation between Gait speed and Hamstring torque and a significant correlation with Quadriceps torque. In the Pyramidal group there was poor or no correlation.

In patients with undifferentiated MS there is some correlation between Gait speed and muscle strength.

In the case of Sensory Loss, a higher contribution of both Flexor and Extensors of the lower limbs was observed, suggesting that muscular compensation occurred in this situation to maintain Gait speed.

These results are relevant to assess rehabilitation modalities in MS.


Gait Abnormalities In Minimally Impaired MS

Benedetti MG, Piperno R, Simoncini L, Bonato P, Tonini A, Giannini S
Mult Scler 1999 Oct;5(5):363-8
Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Movement Analysis Laboratory, Bologna, Italy
PMID# 10516781; UI# 99448058

Subclinical evidence of Gait abnormalities were identified in a group of seven patients with Multiple Sclerosis, EDSS scored 0 - 2, without functional limitations.

A movement analysis technique was used to identify Gait parameters indicative of Impaired Motor Function during Walking.

Abnormalities related primarily to Time-Distance Parameters were identified regardless the severity of the clinical score:

  1. Reduced Speed Of Progression
    • Shorter Strides
    • Prolonged Double Support Phase
  2. Muscular Function
    • Premature Recruitment Of Gastrocnemius
    • Late Relaxation of Tibialis Anterior during Stance Phase

The Gait analysis procedure was able to provide the clinician with evidence of Motor abnormalities prior to functional disturbance observable by a trained physician.

These minimal dysfunctions may have resulted from Reflex Mechanisms impaired by Delayed Transmission through long loop pathways or else as a result of a nonspecific Protective Gait strategy to improve Balance Control.

The technique described in this study may be useful to identify earlier starting points for follow-up and PhysioTherapy.


Multiple Sclerosis

Clinical survey of 50 patients followed at the Ambulatory of Neurology UNIFESP-EPM
De Oliveira EM, Annes M, Oliveira AS, Gabbai AA
Arq NeuroPsiquiatr 1999 Mar;57(1):51-5
Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina (DN/UNIFESP-EPM), Departamento de Neurolgia e Neurocirurgia, Brasil
PMID# 10347724; UI# 99277072

Multiple Sclerosis, seems to be a rare disease however in the population herein studied it is similar to the one described by others, in Brazil and abroad.

We studied 50 patients classified according Poser's Criteria that were followed at the Dept of Neurology UNIFESP-EPM from 1983 to 1995. The clinical findings of these 50 patients were similar to those described in other series.

We found a high prevalence among female young patients who presented Relapsing/Remitting evolution. The most common symptoms were those related to Pyramidal and Cerebellar Dysfunctions.

The EDSS score seems to be worse in patients with specific Cerebellar and Pyramidal Signs, higher number of relapses and longer time of disease but it is not related to the number of White Matter lesions found at MRI.


The Measurement Of Ambulatory Impairment In Multiple Sclerosis

Schwid SR, Goodman AD, Mattson DH, Mihai C, Donohoe KM, Petrie MD, Scheid EA, Dudman JT, McDermott MP
Neurology 1997 Nov;49(5):1419-24
University of Rochester Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Rochester, NY, USA
PMID# 9371932

The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between continuous measures of Ambulatory Impairment in MS patients and their ordinal counterparts. Much of the disability caused by MS is due to Ambulatory Impairment.

The Expanded Disability Severity Scale (EDSS) and the Ambulation Index (AI) are ordinal measures of MS severity based largely on the Maximal Distance subjects can walk (Dmax) and the time to walk 8 m (T8), respectively.

At EDSS levels 6.0 to 7.0 and AI levels 3 to 6, scores are defined more by the use of ambulatory aids, rather than by Dmax or T8. We determined Dmax (up to 500 m), T8, the EDSS score, and the AI in 237 ambulatory MS patients.

The maximal distance subjects could walk and T8 were strongly related to their ordinal counterparts (Spearman r = 0.65 and 0.91, respectively), but the continuous measures showed considerable variability within EDSS and AI levels that the ordinal scales did not reflect.

Most of the variability occurred at EDSS levels 6.0 to 7.0 and AI levels 3 to 6. Because the use of an aid did not clearly predict Dmax or T8.

Many patients in these ranges had better ambulatory function based on the continuous measures than those with less disability according to the ordinal scales.

We found that Dmax and T8 provide more precise information about Ambulatory Impairment in MS than do the EDSS and AI.

Allowing better discrimination of differences between patients and potentially greater sensitivity to detect therapeutic effects in clinical trials.


Relationship Between Gait Speed And Strength Parameters In Multiple Sclerosis

Mevellec E, Lamotte D, Cantalloube S, Amarenco G, Thoumie P
Ann Readapt Med Phys 2003 Mar;46(2):85-90
Hopital Rothschild, Service de Reeducation Neuro-Orthopedique, 33, boulevard de Picpus, 75012 Paris et Inserm U483, France
PMID# 12676413

Recent studies have focused on correlation between strength and Gait parameters in Hemiplegia, suggesting the interest for strength training in patients with Central Nervous System lesions.

The aim of this study was to evaluate this correlation in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients with special regard to the different clinical forms including Proprioceptive loss or Cerebellar Ataxia.

Patients And Method
Gait speed and muscular function were performed in 27 patients with moderate affected Gait (EDSS < 6). Gait speed was evaluated with Locometre and peak-torques of quadriceps and hamstrings were evaluated with isokinetic dynamometer.

Patients were separated in three groups related to their deficiency: Spastic group (8 patients), Spastic with Proprioceptive loss (12 patients) and spastic with Cerebellar Ataxia (7 patients). Gait parameters were evaluated in 10 healthy subjects as control group.

Gait speeds (spontaneous and maximal) and peak torques of quadriceps and hamstring were similar in the three groups.

In the whole patients group, Gait speed was reduced and related to hamstring peak torque (r = 0.56 at spontaneous speed and 0.51 at high speed) but not with quadriceps peak torque.

Patients with Proprioceptive loss exhibited not only a higher correlation between Gait speed and hamstring torque (r = 0.76 and 0.65 respectively) than other patients but also with quadriceps torque (r = 0.66 and 0.59 respectively) when patients in other groups did not.

As it was previously pointed out in Hemiplegic patients, MS patients exhibit some correlation between Gait speed and muscle strength, mainly with hamstrings.

These correlations can change in special sensory conditions suggesting that patients with sensory loss use different muscular strategies to maintain Gait speed.

Strength training may therefore be discussed in MS including specific modalities as a function of clinical parameters.


Strength, Postural And Gait Changes Following Rehabilitation In Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Study

Cantalloube S, Monteil I, Lamotte D, Mailhan L, Thoumie P
Ann Readapt Med Phys 2006 May;49(4):143-9
Hôpital Léopold-Bellan, Service de Rééducation Neurologique, 21, rue Vercingétorix, 75014 Paris, France
PMID# 16545886

To evaluate the impact of rehabilitation on Balance, Gait and Strength in inpatients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

Twenty-one in patients with MS benefited from a program of rehabilitation with evaluation before and after rehabilitation.

Balance was assessed by stabilometry, walking speed with use of a locometer device and maximal peak torque of knee extensor and flexor with use of an Isokinetic Dynamometer at 60 degrees speed.

The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) was also applied before and after rehabilitation.

After rehabilitation, patients showed significant improvement in Balance with opened and closed eyes, velocity gait, strength of the lower quadriceps and the higher hamstrings and FIM values.

Absolute values of Gait speed and Strength parameters were related as were improvement in velocity speed and the higher hamstrings.

The results are encouraging and confirm the interest and tolerance of a program of rehabilitation among patients with MS.


Gait And Balance Impairment In Early Multiple Sclerosis In The Absence Of Clinical Disability

Martin CL, Phillips BA, Kilpatrick TJ, Butzkueven H, Tubridy N, McDonald E, Galea MP
Mult Scler. 2006 Oct;12(5):620-8
The University of Melbourne, School of PhysioTherapy, Melbourne 3010, Australia
PMID# 17086909

This study evaluated the Gait and Balance performance of two clinically distinct groups of recently diagnosed and minimally impaired Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients:

(Expanded Disability Status Scale range 0-2.5), compared to control subjects.

Ten MS patients with mild Pyramidal Signs (Pyramidal Functional Systems 1.0), 10 MS patients with no Pyramidal Signs (Pyramidal Functional Systems 0) and 20 age.

And gender-matched control subjects were assessed using laboratory-based Gait analysis and clinical Balance measures.

Both MS groups demonstrated reduced speed and stride length (P < 0.001), and prolonged double limb support (P < 0.02), compared to the control group.

Along with alterations in the timing of ankle muscle activity, and the pattern of ankle motion during walking, which occurred independent of Gait speed.

The Pyramidal MS group walked with reduced speed (P = 0.03) and stride length (P = 0.04), and prolonged double limb support (P =0.01), compared to the Non-Pyramidal group.

Both MS groups demonstrated concomitant Balance Impairment, performing poorly on the Functional Reach Test compared to the control group (P < 0.05).

The identification of incipient Gait and Balance Impairment in MS patients with recent disease onset suggests that motor function may begin to deteriorate in the early stages of the disease, even in the absence of clinical signs of pyramidal dysfunction.

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