Sleep-Wake And Body Core Temperature Rhythms In Multiple Sclerosis With Fatigue
Vetrugno R, Stecchi S, Scandellari C, Pierangeli G, Sabattini L, D'Angelo R, Provini F, Plazzi G, Cortelli P, Montagna P
Clin NeuroPhysiol 2006 Nov 7
University of Bologna, Department of Neurological Sciences, Via Ugo Foscolo 7, 40123 Bologna, Italy
To study sleep-wake and Body Core Temperature (BCT) Circadian rhythms in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS)-associated with chronic Fatigue.
Six Relapsing/Remitting MS patients with chronic Fatigue underwent 48 consecutive hours PolySomnoGraphy (PSG) with BCT measurement, followed by a Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT).
All patients were relapse- and drug-free. Mood depression, Brain and Cervical Cord enhanced MRI, dynamic spirometry and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) were assessed just before PSG.
In all patients mood depression was absent and dynamic spirometry normal, but FSS confirmed Fatigue. MRI showed non-enhancing lesions.
Nocturnal sleep was characterized by normal architecture and mean sleep efficiency was only slightly reduced.
Arousal index was normal and periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) were present in four patients, with an increased index (PLMS-I) in only two of them.
Upon MSLT, mean sleep latency was normal in all patients with one sleep onset REM period in one patient. All patients displayed a normal BCT 24-h rhythm.
Mesor, amplitude and acrophase of BCT rhythm did not show significant differences between MS and controls.
We found substantially normal sleep-wake and BCT rhythmicity in six patients with MS and Fatigue.
Non-restorative sleep and abnormal BCT regulation were unlikely mechanisms of chronic Fatigue in our MS patients.
Subjective Fatigue and abnormal sleep and BCT can be independent manifestation in MS patients.
The findings support the notion that objective measures of Fatigue comparable to the MSLT for sleepiness do not exist.
Multiple Sclerosis: A Battle Between Destruction And Repair
McQualter JL, Bernard CC
J NeuroChem 2006 Nov 13
Monash University, Monash Immunology and Stem Cell Laboratories, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic NeuroDegenerative Disease of the CNS in which an unrelenting attack from the Innate and Adaptive arms of the Immune System results in extensive DeMyelination, loss of Oligodendrocytes and Axonal Degeneration.
This review summarizes advances in the understanding of the cellular and molecular pathways involved in NeuroDegeneration following Autoimmune-mediated inflammation in the CNS.
The mechanisms underlying Myelin and Axonal destruction and the equally important interaction between degenerative and repair mechanisms are discussed.
Recent studies have revealed that the failure of CNS regeneration may be in part a result of the presence of Myelin-associated growth inhibitory molecules in MS lesions.
Successful therapeutic intervention in MS is likely to require suppression of the inflammatory response, in concert with blockade of growth inhibitory molecules and possibly the mobilization or transplantation of Stem Cells for regeneration.
Glia 2006 Nov 15;54(7):666-75
University of Portsmouth, School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Portsmouth, United Kingdom
The function of Oligodendrocytes is to myelinate CNS Axons. Oligodendrocytes and the Axons they myelinate are functional units, and NeuroTransmitters released by Axons can influence all stages of Oligodendrocyte development via Calcium dependent mechanisms.
Some of the clearest functional evidence is for Adenosine, ATP, and Glutamate, which are released by electrically active Axons and regulate the migration and proliferation of Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells and their differentiation into myelinating Oligodendrocytes.
Glutamate and ATP, released by both Axons and Astrocytes, continue to mediate Ca+ signaling in mature Oligodendrocytes, acting via AMPA and NMDA Glutamate Receptors, and heterogeneous P2X and P2Y Purinoceptors.
Physiological signalling between Axons, Astrocytes, and Oligodendrocytes is likely to play an important role in Myelin maintenance throughout life.
Significantly, ATP- and Glutamate-mediated Ca+ signaling are also major components of Oligodendrocyte and Myelin damage in numerous pathologies, most notably Ischemia, injury, PeriVentricular Leukomalacia, and Multiple Sclerosis.
In addition, NG2-expressing Glia (Synantocytes) in the adult CNS are highly reactive cells that respond rapidly to any CNS insult by a characteristic Gliosis, and are able to regenerate Oligodendrocytes and possibly Neurons.
Glutamate and ATP released by Neurons and Astrocytes evoke Ca+ signaling in NG2-Glia (Synantocytes), and it is proposed these regulate their differentiation capacity and response to injury.
In summary, clear roles have been demonstrated for NeuroTransmitter-mediated Ca+ signaling in Oligodendrocyte development and pathology.
A key issue for future studies is to determine the physiological roles of NeuroTransmitters in mature Oligodendrocytes and NG2-Glia (Synantocytes).
Inhibition By Mitoxantrone Of In Vitro Migration Of Immunocompetent Cells: A Possible Mechanism For Therapeutic Efficacy In The Treatment Of Multiple Sclerosis
Kopadze T, Dehmel T, Hartung HP, Stuve O, Kieseier BC
Arch Neurol 2006 Nov;63(11):1572-8
Heinrich Heine University, Department of Neurology, Research Group for Clinical and Experimental NeuroImmunology, Dusseldorf, Germany
Damage of the Blood-Brain Barrier and invasion of Immunocompetent cells into the Central Nervous System represent key events in the ImmunoPathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis.
Mitoxantrone hydrochloride reduces progression of disability and clinical exacerbations in patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Its precise mode of action is unclear.
Objective & Design
To investigate the effects of Mitoxantrone on the migratory capacity of ImmunoCompetent Cells ex vivo and in vitro. A case-control study.
Heinrich Heine University, Department of Neurology, Dusseldorf, Germany.
Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 11 patients with Multiple Sclerosis before and after intravenous Mitoxantrone treatment; PBMCs from 5 healthy control donors were treated with Mitoxantrone in vitro.
Main Outcome Measures
The migratory capacity was studied in an in vitro Boyden chamber assay; cells and their rates of migration were analyzed by light microscopy and flow cytometry.
To determine the specificity of our findings, PBMCs were treated with Perfosfamide in vitro.
Mitoxantrone decreased the migratory capacity of CD14+ Monocytes and (to a lesser degree) of CD4+ and CD8+ T-Lymphocytes.
These observations were confirmed when control PBMCs were treated with an equivalent dose of Mitoxantrone in vitro. Similar effects were seen when PBMCs were preincubated with Perfosfamide.
The inhibitory effects of Mitoxantrone on the migratory capacity of PBMCs were mediated by reduced Matrix MetalloProteinase-9 activity, as demonstrated by zymography, polymerase chain reaction, and inhibitory studies.
Mitoxantrone may inhibit the migration of inflammatory cells into and within the Central Nervous System.
Interferon Inhibitory Activity In Patients With Multiple Sclerosis
Chadha K, Weinstock-Guttman B, Zivadinov R, Bhasi K, Muhitch J, Feichter J, Tamano-Blanco M, Abdelrahman N, Ambrus J Sr, Munschauer F, Ramanathan M
Arch Neurol 2006 Nov;63(11):1579-84
Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Jacobs Neurological Institute, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Buffalo, New York 14263, USA
Interferon Inhibitory Activity (IIA) is a logical candidate for explaining Neutralizing AntiBody-negative partial responsiveness to Interferon-ß in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), but its role has not been evaluated.
Objective & Design
To investigate the role of IIA and soluble Interferon-/ß receptor (sIFNR) in determining response of patients with MS to Interferon-beta therapy. A parallel-group, open-label study.
Baird Multiple Sclerosis Center, Buffalo, NY.
Patients Blood was obtained before and 24 hours after injection of Interferon-ß-1a from 38 Anti-Interferon-ß Neutralizing AntiBody-negative patients with Relapsing/Remitting MS and 16 untreated healthy controls.
On the basis of clinical parameters of response to Interferon-ß therapy, the patients were divided into stable or good-responder (n = 20) and active or partial-responder (n = 18) groups.
Main Outcome Measures
Quantitative analyses of Magnetic Resonance Imaging were obtained; the IIA and sIFNR levels were measured using bioassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively.
The IIA and sIFNR levels were elevated in MS patients compared with controls (P < .001).
The IIA levels were higher in active or partial responders compared with stable or good responders (P < .001); the sIFNR levels were not different between groups.
The Extended Disability Status Score and T2 lesion volumes were higher in the active or partial-responder group compared with the stable or good-responder group.
Interferon-ß-1a did not have short-term effects on the IIA and sIFNR levels.
In univariate general linear model and stepwise regression analyses, IIA levels were associated with T2 lesion volume.
The levels of IIA are associated with increased MS disease activity and with responsiveness to Interferon-ß therapy in Anti-Interferon-ß Neutralizing AntiBody-negative MS patients.
Interferon-beta-1b Exacerbates Multiple Sclerosis With Severe Optic Nerve And Spinal Cord DeMyelination
Warabi Y, Matsumoto Y, Hayashi H
J Neurol Sci 2006 Nov 22
Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Department of Neurology, Tokyo, Japan; Metropolitan Institute for NeuroScience, Department of Molecular NeuroPathology, Tokyo Tokyo, Japan
To evaluate the effect of Interferon-beta-1b (IFN-ß-1b) on Multiple Sclerosis (MS) with severe Optic Nerve and Spinal Cord DeMyelination.
We examined the relationship between IFN-ß-1b treatment outcome and the clinical and genetic characteristics of three types of DeMyelinating Diseases of the Central Nervous System, i.e., NeuroMyelitis Optica (NMO), MS and MS with severe Optic-Spinal DeMyelination.
Japanese MS frequently carried HLA DPB1()0501, which is associated with NMO.
MS with DPB1()0501 showed severe Optic-Spinal DeMyelination represented by longitudinally extensive Spinal Cord lesion, blindness and CSF Pleocytosis.
IFN-ß-1b treatment did not succeed in these patients because of the increase of Optic Nerve and Spinal Cord relapse and other severe side effects.
IFN-ß-1b should not be administered to DeMyelinating patients with genetic and clinical characteristics mimicking NMO such as HLA DPB1()0501 allele, longitudinally extensive Spinal Cord lesion, blindness and CSF Pleocytosis even if they have symptomatic Cerebral lesions as typically seen in MS.
The present study strongly suggests that these patients should be diagnosed as having NMO.
Wingerchuk DM, Lennon VA, Pittock SJ, Lucchinetti CF, Weinshenker BG
Neurology 2006 May 23;66(10):1485-9
Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA
The authors previously proposed diagnostic criteria for NeuroMyelitis Optica (NMO) that facilitate its distinction from prototypic Multiple Sclerosis (MS).
However, some patients with otherwise typical NMO have additional symptoms not attributable to Optic Nerve or Spinal Cord inflammation or have MS-like Brain MRI lesions.
Furthermore, some patients are misclassified as NMO by the authors' earlier proposed criteria despite having a subsequent course indistinguishable from prototypic MS.
A Serum AutoAntiBody marker, NMO-IgG, is highly specific for NMO. The authors propose revised NMO diagnostic criteria that incorporate NMO-IgG status.
Using final clinical diagnosis (NMO or MS) as the reference standard, the authors calculated sensitivity and specificity for each criterion and various combinations using a sample of 96 patients with NMO and 33 with MS.
The authors used likelihood ratios and logistic regression analysis to develop the most practical and informative diagnostic model.
Fourteen patients with NMO (14.6%) had extra-Optic-Spinal CNS symptoms.
NMO-IgG SeroPositivity was 76% sensitive and 94% specific for NMO. The best diagnostic combination was 99% sensitive and 90% specific for NMO.
And consisted of at least two of three elements: longitudinally extensive Cord lesion, onset Brain MRI nondiagnostic for MS, or NMO-IgG SeroPositivity.
The authors propose revised diagnostic criteria for definite NeuroMyelitis Optica (NMO) that require Optic Neuritis, Myelitis, and at least two of three supportive criteria:
MRI evidence of a contiguous Spinal Cord lesion 3 or more segments in length, onset Brain MRI nondiagnostic for Multiple Sclerosis, or NMO-IgG SeroPositivity.
CNS involvement beyond the Optic Nerves and Spinal Cord is compatible with NMO.