Discriminant Analysis Of The Cognitive Performance Profile Of Ms Patients Differentiates Their Clinical Course
Kraus JA, Schutze C, Brokate B, Kroger B, Schwendemann G, Hildebrandt H
J Neurol 2005 Mar 6
Klinikum Bremen Ost, Dept. of Neurology, Zuricher Str. 40, 28325, Bremen, Germany
To compare the NeuroPsychological deficits of Primary/Progressive Multiple Sclerosis with those of Relapsing/Remitting and Secondary/Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.
Sixty five patients with different clinical courses of MS were NeuroPsychologically tested for Language, Attention, Memory and Executive functions.
Discriminant analysis was used to predict the type of clinical course either by clinical variables (age, EDSS and duration of illness) or NeuroPsychological test results.
For single NeuroPsychological tests, group differences were rare between the Progressive courses and the Relapsing/Remitting course of MS or absent between the Progressive courses of MS.
However, discriminant analysis correctly identified 87.7 percent of the patients' courses in general, and about 90 percent of the patients with Chronic Progressive MS.
Using discriminant analysis, this study found NeuroPpsychological Impairment characteristic for Relapsing/Remitting, Secondary/Progressive and Primary/Progressive patients.
Role Of InterLeukin-4 In Spanish Multiple Sclerosis Patients
Urcelay E, Santiago JL, Mas A, Martinez A, de Las Heras V, Arroyo R, de la Concha EG
J NeuroImmunol 2005 Nov;168(1-2):164-7
Hospital Universitario San Carlos, Immunology Department, Martin Lagos s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
InterLeukin-4 is a Th2 Cytokine with potent anti-inflammatory properties. Protection from Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and Multiple Sclerosis has been achieved with IL-4 therapy and IL-4 deficient mice developed a more severe form of clinical disease.
Four polymorphisms within the IL-4 gene are in strong linkage disequilibrium, including one in the promoter at -590, which controls transcriptional activity.
An MS protective role for the heterozygous genotype was confirmed in Spain (exon-1+33 C/T: p=0.003, OR [CI]=0.57 [0.38-0.84]), probably indicative of an MS protection haplotype at 5q31 locus. No difference among MS clinical forms or age at onset was detected.
Multiple Sclerosis: Mitoxantrone Promotes Differential Effects On Immunocompetent Cells In Vitro
Neuhaus O, Wiendl H, Kieseier BC, Archelos JJ, Hemmer B, Stuve O, Hartung HP
J NeuroImmunol 2005 Nov;168(1-2):128-37
Heinrich-Heine-Universitat, Department of Neurology, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
Mitoxantrone is an Anti-Neoplastic Anthracenedione derivative that, based on its ImmunoSuppressive properties, is approved for the treatment of severe forms of Relapsing/Remitting or Secondary/Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (MS).
Whether the beneficial clinical effects of Mitoxantrone in MS are due to a broad ImmunoSuppression, or whether there is a specific mechanism of action remains unknown.
Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) from untreated or Interferon-beta-treated patients with MS or from healthy donors were stimulated in the presence or absence of Mitoxantrone.
Irrespective of the source of the cells and the cellular phenotype, Mitoxantrone inhibited proliferation of activated PBMCs, B-Lymphocytes, or Antigen-specific T-Cell lines (TCLs) stimulated on Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs) in a dose-dependent manner.
For functional analysis, TCLs or APCs were incubated separately with Mitoxantrone. Pre-incubation of APC more effectively impaired TCL proliferation than pre-incubation of TCLs.
Production of Cytokines, expression of activation markers, Matrix MetalloProteinases, and Chemokine Receptors were not influenced substantially by Mitoxantrone.
In contrast, in Dendritic Cells (DCs), Mitoxantrone interfered with the Antigen-Presenting capabilities.
For evaluation of apoptotic cell death of target cells, Annexin-V-conjugates and a DNA fragmentation assay were applied. Mitoxantrone induced apoptosis of PBMCs, Monocytes and DCs at low concentrations, whereas higher doses caused cell lysis.
Our observations suggest that the beneficial effects of Mitoxantrone in MS result (i) from its ImmunoSuppressive action based on nonspecific CytoToxic effects on Lymphocytes, (ii) by inducing programmed cell death of professional APCs, such as DCs.
MRI Reveals That Early Changes In Cerebral Blood Volume Precede Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown And Overt Pathology In MS-Like Lesions In Rat Brain
Broom KA, Anthony DC, Blamire AM, Waters S, Styles P, Perry VH, Sibson NR
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2005 Feb;25(2):204-16
University of Oxford, Experimental NeuroImaging Group, Department of Biochemistry, Oxford, UK
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an established clinical tool for diagnosing Multiple Sclerosis (MS), The Archetypal Central Nervous System NeuroiInflammatory Disease. In this study, we have used a model of delayed-type hypersensitivity in the rat Brain.
Which bears many of the hallmarks of an MS lesion, to investigate the development of MRI-detectable changes before the appearance of conventional indices of lesion development.
In addition, we have correlated the MRI-detectable changes with the developing HistoPathology.
Significant increases in regional Cerebral Blood Volume (rCBV) preceded overt changes in Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) permeability, T2 relaxation and the Diffusion properties of tissue water.
Thus, changes in rCBV might be a more sensitive indicator of lesion onset than the conventional indices used clinically in MS patients, such as contrast enhancement.
In addition, we show that BBB breakdown, and consequent Edema formation, are more closely correlated with Astrogliosis than any other Histopathologic changes, while regions of T1 and T2 HypoIntensity appear to reflect HyperCellularity.
tPA Receptors And The FibrinoLytic Response In Multiple Sclerosis Lesions
Gveric D, Herrera BM, Cuzner ML
Am J Pathol 2005 Apr;166(4):1143-51
Institute of Neurology, Department of NeuroInflammation, UCL, 1 Wakefield St., London WC1N 1PJ, UK
Axonal damage in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions is associated with failure of FibrinoLysis because of the inhibition of the PlasMinogen Activator System.
Plasma membrane Receptors for tissue PlasMinogen Activator (tPA) and PlasMinogen concentrate ProteoLytic activity on the cell surface and provide protection from inhibitors that in turn may locally enhance the FibrinoLytic Response.
Therefore, we have investigated expression of two of these Receptors in MS lesions, Annexin II Tetramer (AIIt) and low-density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein (LRP).
In acute MS lesions both AIIt and LRP were ImmunoLocalized on Macrophages and Astrocytes while LRP was additionally found on Neuronal Cells in Cortical Gray Matter.
Western blot analysis confirmed a significant increase in AIIt in MS lesions and in a proportion of Normal-Appearing White Matter samples.
With a highly significant correlation between Annexin II levels, and factors associated with impeded FibrinoLysis, such as PlasMinogen Activator Inhibitor-1.
ImmunoBlotting analysis of PlasMinogen revealed increased levels of Lysine-PlasMinogen in samples expressing high AIIt protein levels.
Our results suggest that limited availability of tPA in MS lesions because of formation of tPA-PlasMinogen Activator Inhibitor-1 complexes, reduces capability of tPA receptors to generate Plasmin, which further diminishes FibrinoLytic capacity in active MS lesions and possibly leads to Axonal Damage.
Incidence Of Seizures In Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Treated With Intrathecal Baclofen
Schuele SU, Kellinghaus C, Shook SJ, Boulis N, Bethoux FA, Loddenkemper T
Neurology 2005 Mar 22;64(6):1086-7
The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Neurology/S91, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
Oral and Intrathecal Baclofen (ITB) have been associated with Epileptic Seizures. The authors observed a higher incidence of Epileptic Seizures in 99 patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) treated with ITB vs a matched control group (7% vs 1%, p < 0.05).
Three patients with MS on ITB developed status epilepticus. Seizures were often associated with additional triggering factors.
Deloire MS, Salort E, Bonnet M, Arimone Y, Boudineau M, Amieva H, Barroso B, Ouallet JC, Pachai C, Galliaud E, Petry KG, Dousset V, Fabrigoule C, Brochet B
J Neurol NeuroSurg Psychiatry 2005 Apr;76(4):519-26
University Victor Segalen, EA 2966 NeuroBiology of Myelin Disorders Laboratory, case 78, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux cedex, France
To establish the frequency of Cognitive Impairment in a population based sample of patients with recently diagnosed Relapsing/Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS).
And, to determine the relation between Cognitive abnormalities and the extent of macroscopic and microscopic tissue damage revealed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Magnetization Transfer (MT) imaging.
58 patients with RRMS consecutively diagnosed in the previous six months in Aquitaine and 70 healthy controls underwent a battery of NeuroPsychological Tests.
Lesion load and Atrophy indices (Brain Parenchymal Fraction and Ventricular Fraction) were measured on Brain MRI.
MT Ratio (MTR) Histograms were obtained from lesions, Normal-Appearing White Matter (NAWM), and Normal-Appearing Gray Matter (NAGM). Gadolinium enhanced lesions were counted.
44 RRMS patients could be individually matched with healthy controls for age, sex, and education.
Patients performed worse in tests of Verbal and Spatial Memory, Attention, Information Processing Speed, Inhibition, and Conceptualization.
Measures of Attention and Information Processing Speed were correlated with lesion load, mean NAWM MTR, and the peak location of the NAGM MTR Histogram in the patients.
Multivariate regression analysis showed that lesion load and mean NAWM MTR were among the MR indices that were most significantly associated with Impairment Of Attention and Information Processing Speed in these early RRMS cases.
Cognitive Impairment appears to be common in the early stages of RRMS, mainly affecting Attention, Information Processing Speed, Memory, Inhibition, and Conceptualization.
The severity of these deficits reflects the extent of the lesions and the severity of tissue disorganization outside lesions.